^\\EUNIVER% ^10$ ANGELA
^^ CP Cp *
S 3 15 g
B ZJI I & &
THE HON. JOHN COLLIER.
C ASS ELL & COMPANY, LIMITED
LO.\DO\, PARIS, NEW 1'OA'A' ' MELBOURNE.
[ALL RIGHTS RESEF.VED.]
A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
THE art of painting in oils is a very difficult one, and
not the least of its difficulties consists in the great
uncertainty that exists as to the proper methods to be
pursued. As a rule the great painters have been too
much occupied with their painting to explain to the
world how their effects have been produced. Indeed,
it would seem that they have not always known
themselves ; for when they have theorised upon the
subject their theories have been often quite irrecorr- "
cilable with their practice.
Fortunately, they have generally had pupils who
have carried on the tradition of their masters' work,
and on the Continent this excellent system is still in
force at the present day, for most of the great foreign
painters think it their duty to give up a certain
amount of their time to teaching, without any other
reward than the additional fame conferred on them
by the successes of their pupils.
For some reason or other this practice is almost
unknown in England. Our English painters have no
2 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
pupils, so the experience they have so laboriously
acquired for themselves is of no profit to others. It
is true that the schools of the Royal Academy are
visited in turn by some of the Academicians, but the
utmost that a student can hope to gain from these
visits is a confused jumble of at least a dozen
Nor is there much enlightenment to be gained
from books. It is a melancholy fact that more non-
sense can be talked about art than about any other
subject, and writers of treatises on painting, from the
great Leonardo downwards, have not been slow to
avail themselves of this privilege. The student who
attempts to model his practice on their precepts must
inevitably arrive at the most disastrous results.
I am aware that after having said this it must
seem the height of folly to add another to these
treatises ; but I have a firm conviction, in spite of
all experience, that it is possible to apply ordinary
common sense to these matters, and I mean to
try to do so.
First of all it may be as well to lay down, with
some attempt at precision, the object the student
should have in view.
To whatever use he may mean to put his art
eventually, the one thing that he has to learn as a
student is how to represent faithfully any object that
he has before him. The man who can do this is a
painter, the man who cannot do it is not one. Of
course there is more to be done in painting than this,
but once this power has been attained the student
stage is at an end the workman has learnt his craft,
he has become a painter.
Of course, having got so far he may fail to apply
his knowledge to any good purpose, but at least the
means of expression are ready to his hand.
This representation of natural objects by means
of pigments on a flat surface is a very definite matter,
and most people are competent to judge of the truth
or falsehood of such a representation, if they are fairly
put in a position to do so ; even the student himself
can be a good judge of the success of his own work
if he will make due allowance for his natural parti-
ality for it.
There is, after all, nothing so very mysterious in
the matter. Every natural object appears to us as a
sort of pattern of different shades and colours. The
task of the artist is so to arrange his shades and
colours on his canvas that a similar pattern is pro-
duced. If this be well done the effect on the eye will
be almost identical. As far as seeing is concerned,
the two things, the object and the picture, will be
alike ; they will be absolutely different to the sense
of touch, or indeed to any other sense, but to the
sense of sight they will be practically identical.
I am sorry to say anything that may diminish the
awe with which the outside public regards my pro-
fession, but instead of finding it (as many worthy
persons do) almost miraculous that a perfect repre-
sentation should be made on a flat surface of solid
objects, I have always wondered why it should be so
4 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
Let us state the problem once again
Whenever we look at a scene we have a patch-
work of shades and colours floating before our eyes,
and this in fact is the scene ; we have to place on
canvas similar patches, similar in form, position,
colour, and intensity. It ought not to be difficult ;
any one who can judge if two colours and two forms
are alike ought to be able to paint an accurate
picture of anything that he has before him. And yet
it undoubtedly is difficult so difficult that a long and
laborious course of study is needed before even the
most gifted can achieve a real proficiency in this
elementary part of their art.
Unfortunately, in England at the present day, a
student is left very much to his own resources when
he enters upon that most difficult part of his studies
which comprises the practice of painting as dis-
tinguished from that of drawing. In most of the art
schools now in existence it is easy to get good in-
struction in drawing, but the teaching of painting is
mostly very inadequate. The painter who knows his
business will not, with some few exceptions, waste his
time in giving instruction, and the instruction to be
gained from a painter who does not know his business
is worse than useless.
If by any means the student can obtain personal
instruction from a competent painter he will not need
this handbook nor any other ; but if he cannot I will
endeavour to show how he may, to a great extent,
In the first place, it is necessary to have some sort
of method, both as to the routine of study and as to
the technical processes to be employed. With regard
to technique, I shall describe a very simple system of
painting which I recommend the student to try ; but
as it frequently happens that a method which suits
one man does not suit another, I shall give a short
account of some other methods, in the hope that
amongst them the student will find the one that is
best suited to his talent.
And first as to the routine of study. I start by
supposing that the student has already acquired a
fair knowledge of drawing ; there is no lack of good
teaching of drawing in England, so there is no excuse
for incompetence in this matter.
By good drawing I mean a power of accurately
portraying the shapes and position of things, but it is
not at all necessary to have any special dexterity with
the pencil. In oil painting the original drawing may
be clumsy, untidy, vacillating in short, have every
possible fault of execution ; but as long as it is sub-
stantially accurate it will serve its purpose. Of
course, there is no advantage in clumsiness ; it simply
does not matter. There is one general principle
which I think may be of service in drawing. The
painter should always train himself to seize first on
the more important points of the object he is depict-
ing, and then go on to the less important points in
First of all, he should fix the position of the
object he is drawing with regard to the other objects
in the picture, then he should determine its relative
O A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
size, then its shape, then the proportions of its parts,
and finally its minute details.
In the case of a student who is able to make a
fairly accurate if somewhat bungling drawing, the
course of study I should recommend is this: he should
begin by what is called " still life ; " that is, he should
carefully make an arrangement of some simple objects
which are not liable to any change in appearance ;
it matters very little what they are as long as they
conform to this rule, which, of course, excludes all
living things. Perhaps china and pots and pans make
the best preliminary exercises, care being taken to
avoid any elaborate patterns, or anything in which the
detail is intricate. These objects should be arranged
with some simple background behind them, and in as
steady a light as possible that is, a light that re-
mains practically the same from day to day, and
from hour to hour. A room with a north window
is best ; if there are other windows in the room,
they can be blocked up. Should there be no con-
venient room with a north window in it, some room
can always be found in which the light is steady
for a part of the day, and the painting should only
be done during this part of the day. Even with a
north window a great deal of inconvenience can
arise if there be any building in front of it which
can reflect the sunlight ; this should be carefully
taken into consideration in choosing the painting
room. Of course, it is better in every way to have
a regular studio ; but it is not every beginner who
can indulge in such a luxury, whereas a room in
which it is possible to paint can be found in every
house. There is one other thing to be considered
in the choice of a room : it must not be too small.
It is essential that the painter should be able to see
his work from a good distance. The kind of window
matters very little as long as the light is steady. The
window can be high or low, big or small ; a light from
above is in some ways best, but it can very well be
dispensed with ; and a very small window gives light
enough to paint by if the painting be brought close
enough to it.
The way in which the object is lit up is compara-
tively unimportant as long as the lighting remains
the same. Any kind of light and shade is good for
study, but it is very important that there should be a
good light on the picture. If an oil picture be turned
towards the light it gets what is called a shine that
is, it reflects the window. Of course, if it be too much
turned away it does not have light enough on it, so it
must be turned sideways with regard to the window,
unless, indeed, the light comes very much from above,
in which case it can be placed in almost any position
which is one of the advantages of a top light.
It is, therefore, the lighting of the picture that has
to be chiefly considered in arranging the position of
the " still life." I shall point out, later on, how im-
portant it is that the picture should be often placed
side by side with the object, and then looked at from
some distance ; consequently, the object should be so
arranged that when this is done the picture receives a
8 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
And now a word as to the materials to be used.
A stretched canvas is on the whole the most con-
venient thing to paint on ; it should neither be very
rough nor very smooth, nor should it be of too small
a size ; about 24 x 20 inches is a good size for studies.
On canvases much smaller than this the work is apt
to be niggling, but they may be as much larger as the
ambition of the painter may suggest. In many ways
it is better that the study should be of the same size
as the object, but it is not essential. The painter
should always, if possible, stand up to his work ; so
the easel must be tall and substantial. As it is im-
portant that the picture should be perpendicular, the
common three-legged easels which slope backwards
should be avoided. It is also important that the
picture should be readily moved up and down, so that
any part which is being worked at may be kept at a
level with the eye. The " still life," also, should be
placed more or less on a level with the eye.
The preliminary drawing should be made with
charcoal. There is no other material that gives such
freedom of execution and such facility of correction.
To begin the drawing, the easel should be placed
at some distance from the object, and the draughts-
man should stand as far from his canvas as is con-
sistent with the power of drawing on it. He should
practise drawing with an outstretched arm, and every
now and then should step backwards to judge better
of the effect. Indeed, there is no more useful general
rule in painting than this : that the painter should con-
tinually look at his picture from as far off as possible.
From time to time the picture should be placed
side by side with the object, so that they can be
looked at together from the end of the room. This
is supposing the picture to be of the size of life ; if
it be under life-size it should be placed at that point
in front of the object where they both appear of the
same size when looked at from the end of the room.
When the two, picture and object, are thus seen side
by side, it must be a very dull eye that cannot dis-
This is the most potent aid to self-improvement ;
by continually resorting to this method the student
can be his own teacher, and correct his own faults.
It should be employed from time to time throughout
the whole progress of the painting. Indeed, it is
quite possible to leave the canvas permanently side
by side with the object, and to walk backwards and
forwards from the end of the room during the whole
course of the painting, giving a touch or two at a
time, and always going back to see if it be right.
This method is much less tedious than it seems ;
and that it is capable of giving good results is abun-
dantly proved by the fact that Sir John Millais never
paints in any other way. So if any student like to
take it up he can be sure that it will not be the fault
of his method if he fail to take the highest rank in
his profession. Nevertheless, I think the modification
of it that I suggest will be found more generally
convenient ; that is, that the painter should habitually
work a good way off from the object, but should from
time to time place his picture side by side with it,
10 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
and then look at them both together from a dis-
As a further aid in detecting inaccuracies a look-
ing-glass is invaluable. A large upright one should
be kept in the painting room, in such a position that
both the picture and the object can be seen in it at
the same time.
The special usefulness of a looking-glass consists
in this, that the most difficult errors to detect are
those which come under the head of obliquity that
is, there is a continual tendency to draw things a little
askew ; but when such drawings are seen in the glass
the obliquity is precisely reversed, and strikes the
eye the more forcibly the more it has become ac-
customed to it For instance, the painter in drawing
a line which should be perpendicular has made it
incline (let us say) a little to the left. If the error be
not noticed at once the eye soon gets accustomed to
it, and takes all lines inclining a little to the left as
perpendicular. But in the looking-glass this very line
appears inclining to the right, and consequently seems
even more out of the perpendicular than it really is.
Quite apart from this, the advantage of having a
fresh view of one's picture such as the looking-glass
gives cannot be over-estimated. In painting, as in
everything else, there is a fatal tendency to become
accustomed to one's faults. There is nothing like
seeing them from a different point of view to give
renewed freshness to one's pictorial conscience.
Of course the first thing in making a drawing is
to get the more important lines right in shape and
PRACTICE. I I
position. In order to do this with more precision it
is sometimes recommended that the drawing should
be blocked out, as it is called that is, that it should
all be drawn in straight lines, curved portions and all,
and the curves eventually obtained by rounding off
I think myself it is a mistake to draw things so
very differently from how one sees them. A curve
should be drawn as a curve from the very beginning;
but, of course, the minor details should be left till the
last. The first sketch should be a bold rendering of
the principal lines, giving the general curvature but
neglecting any minor sinuosities. This should be
corrected until all the proportions and positions are
right. The lines should then be hall rubbed out and
carefully re-drawn, the minor sinuosities being put in,
and the whole line thoroughly studied with regard to
its sweep and curvature. Any straight lines may as
well be ruled ; we should never disdain any aid to
accuracy. Wherever it is possible, actual measurer
ment should be used that is, generally for every line
that is not foreshortened. Even foreshortened lines
may be roughly measured on a pencil held in front
of the eye, and then compared with other lines
that are not foreshortened. A plumb-line is occasion-
ally useful for determining what lines are perpen-
dicular, and what part of the object comes over other
parts. But, as a rule, these latter aids will scarcely
be found necessary if the student avail himself of the
accuracy to be gained by placing the canvas side by
side with the object.
12 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
When the main lines have been accurately drawn
in this manner, the charcoal should again be half
brushed off (either with a soft feather-brush or by
flipping the canvas), and the lines should then be
carefully re-traced with brown or black paint, made
fluid with turpentine, the lines being made fairly thick
and not too faint.
The picture is now ready for painting on. Of
course it is very important to have a proper assort-
ment of colours, in the choice of which three things
have to be borne in mind :
Firstly, the colours must be permanent. It is true
that it matters very little whether the student's earlier
efforts be painted with permanent pigments or not ;
but every student hopes to turn out valuable work
some day, and should consequently get into the habit
from the very first of using none but trustworthy
Secondly, the colours must be capable, with care-
ful mixing, of rendering all, or nearly all, the tints to
be met with in Nature.
Thirdly, they must be as few in number as is con-
sistent with the foregoing consideration ; for it is
obvious that the fewer they are the easier it is
to get thoroughly at home with their various com-
I think the palette I shall now recommend fairly
meets these three requirements Brown ochre, yellow
ochre, Naples yellow, flake white, orange vermilion,
light red, Chinese vermilion, rose madder, burnt
sienna, cobalt, ivory black.
These colours will be found sufficient for ordinary
purposes; but there are certain greens, especially
those occurring in landscape, which require another
yellow, and the choice of this is of some difficulty.
Chrome is precisely the tint that is wanted, but its
stability is too doubtful to allow it to be recom-
Pale cadmium will fairly take its place, and is
said by the chemists to be quite safe. A still paler
cadmium, called mutrie yellow, is much more the
tint that is required ; but it is certainly unsafe, and
should be resolutely avoided.
There are three other colours which should be
held in reserve, to be used occasionally when required.
Emerald oxide of chromium is a very powerful and
perfectly permanent green, which will be found useful
as giving a richer and deeper tint than any combina-
tion of cobalt and yellow. Personally I find it
useful in flesh-tints, but for these there is certainly
no necessity for using it.
So far, my palette has the great recommendation
of being the one used by Mr. Alma Tadema, from
whom I have taken it ; but there are two other
colours which he uses very little, if at all, which I
think, nevertheless, the student may find useful at
times. These are raw umber and deep cadmium.
Although a tint can be mixed of other colours
which shall fairly represent raw umber, yet it is so
convenient in the making of certain browns and
greys that I should be sorry to do without it.
Deep cadmium is so fine a colour, that it would
14 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
be a pity not to have it at hand when a particularly
brilliant yellow is required.
Equipped with these colours, the student may
feel confident that there is hardly a tint in Nature
that he cannot reproduce, with some inevitable loss
of brilliancy at times, but still with substantial accu-
racy. There is no reason why he should not occa-
sionally experiment with other pigments that are
known to be permanent ; but it will save him a great
deal of time, and probably much disappointment, to
put off these experiments until he has advanced some
way in his art. I am quite certain that my list is
good enough to begin with at any rate.
I have put the colours in the order in which I set
them on the palette. It is an order which I have
found convenient in practice, but, of course, their
relative position matters very little ; but it is as well
to fix on a given arrangement, and not alter it,
as then the operation of dipping the brush into
any particular colour is much more rapid and
The choice of the palette itself is not of much
importance. It should be rather large than small, but
not so large as to be tiring to hold.
Some kind of medium must be used with the
colours, and the choice of it is rather difficult. I
think on the whole a mixture of copal, linseed-oil,
and turpentine, is the best for general purposes. It
should be mixed in about equal proportions of all
three, unless the picture be required to dry quickly,
when the linseed oil should be diminished, or even
PRACTICE. 1 5
left out altogether. The medium should be held in
a dipper fastened on to the palette.
The brushes should be numerous and varied. The
most generally useful are flat hog's-hair brushes, which
should range in size from about an inch in diameter
to about a quarter of an inch. There should be at
least two fine sables, and two so-called writer-brushes,
for drawing lines ; these last should always be used
in retracing the charcoal outline. One or two round
hog's-hair will also be found useful.
For the first day's painting only the larger
brushes will be necessary. A palette-knife is quite
indispensable ; it should be of horn, as the contact
with a steel palette-knife is supposed to affect the
permanence of some pigments.
Economy should be studiously avoided in the
setting of the palette ; there is nothing more likely
to give a bad style in oil painting than insufficiency
of colours. In this, but in nothing else, the painter
should be reckless. He should also be warned against
endeavouring to paint with the half-dry remains of
colour that accumulate on the palette. Some pig-
ments, such as rose madder, remain in a fit state
'to paint with after having been on the palette for
many days ; but others become sticky in a day or
two. As soon as they are in this state they should
be thrown away. Colours can be kept moist for
some time by putting them in water, but as a rule
it is not worth while to do this.
A considerable economy can, however, be prac-
tised in brushes by always cleaning them oneself. A
1 6 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
paint brush will last a long time if it be carefully washed
soon after it has been used. The best way of wash-
ing them is to put a little soft soap in the palm of the
hand and to work the brushes about in this, rinsing
them out in moderately warm water from time to
time. When they are free from all traces of colour,
they should be well rinsed in cold water, so as to
get rid of the soap, then squeezed out with a cloth,
and any straggling hairs brought together, so as to
preserve the proper shape of the brush, and then put
in a moderately warm place to dry.
We will now suppose that the palette is set. How
shall we proceed to paint with it ?
The first thing to be done is to match the tints of
the object, and to put them on the canvas in their
proper places without the slightest attempt at detail
or execution ; and the easiest way to do this is to take
the palette-knife, mix to the best of one's judgment
a tint corresponding to some patch of colour on the
object, and then hold up the palette-knife in front of
this patch of colour and compare the two. When the
comparison is put in such a direct manner to the eye
no very bad match can pass muster. The first shot
will probably be ludicrously unlike, and the mixture
must be modified again and again until complete
success is arrived at, which is only the case when the
end of the palette-knife can hardly be distinguished
from the patch of colour in front of which it is held.
The paint should then be dabbed on to the proper
place on the canvas, and spread with a brush until
it is of the proper size and shape, care being taken
that the colour be sufficiently thick to prevent the
canvas showing through. This operation should be
repeated for every considerable patch of colour or
light and shade in the object or in the background
until the canvas is completely covered, when it should
look like a sort of mosaic, giving, when seen at some
distance, a good idea of the general look of the object
without any of its details. It is an operation of great
tcdiousness, but it should be strenuously persevered
with, as there is no other method by which a beginner
can hope to give anything like a really accurate re-
production of the tints of a natural object.
Besides being tedious, the operation has certain
difficulties which can only be overcome by the
exercise of considerable care. It will be found at
once that the tint on the palette-knife varies very
much according as it is turned towards the light
or away from it. To make the results uniform the
canvas should first of all be placed in a fairly strong
light, but sufficiently turned away from the window to
prevent any shine from appearing on its surface when
painted on. (This must be made the subject of direct
experiment : a dab or two of paint will settle the
matter). The palette-knife should then be held close
to the picture, with its surface parallel to the surface
of the picture ; if the colours be matched with the
knife in this position they will look the same when
they are placed on the canvas as they did whilst being
matched. It is obvious that if this be not the case
the matching can only give false results.
When the canvas is covered in this way the first
1 8 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
day's painting is at an end. Care should be taken
not to leave the paint too rough on any part. (When
the learner is more advanced he may try laying on
the paint roughly when a rough texture is needed,
and smoothly when the surfaces represented are
smooth ; but for the present he had better eschew
these subtleties). Nor should any sharp edges be left ;
they would probably have to be corrected, if ever so
slightly, in the finishing, and an edge of oil paint is a
troublesome thing to alter; consequently all the out-
lines should be a little blurred, as it is very easy to
make them sharp at any time, and this should be done
once and for all, wherever necessary, in the finishing.
I have mentioned that the paint should nowhere
be so thin that the canvas can in any way show
through. The reason for this is that the colour will
be altered by the ground underneath, unless this
ground be completely hidden ; it is only by putting
them on thickly that we can trust our matched tints
to be correct. The modifications that come from
colour underneath showing through a thin coat of oil-
paint are very curious, but I must defer the discussion
of them. For the present it will be sufficient to say
that a colour laid thinly on a dark ground appears
colder *>., bluer than its natural hue, whereas a
thin coat of colour on a light ground (such as an
ordinary white canvas) assumes a warmer i.e., a more
When the day's painting is over the canvas should
be put in the sun, or in front of a fire, to dry, care
being taken not to put it so close to the fire as to
make the oil bubble up. There will be no danger of
this at a distance of from four to five feet from even a
very strong fire.
Even when we have done our best to hasten the
drying of our picture, it will certainly not be in a fit
state to work on again until a clear day has elapsed.
This is one of the serious inconveniences of oil paint-
ing ; but it can be easily met by having two pictures
going on on alternate days, which is not a bad thing
in other ways, as the change of subject gives the eye
When it is absolutely necessary to go on with the
same painting day after day, the only plan to adopt
is to paint a bit of it at a time ; but this is certainly
not a good method for beginners. As a general rule,
one should never touch an oil painting unless it is
quite wet or quite dry. Unless very exceptional
effects are required, there is nothing more fatal than
to work at a picture when it is sticky.
In damp weather pictures are apt to be very slow
in drying. This can be prevented, to a certain extent,
by diminishing the proportion of oil in the medium.
When our picture is quite dry we must consider
how to advance it a stage further.
In the first place it should be rubbed over lightly
with linseed-oil ; it will very likely be found that in
places, at least, the oil will not " take," as it is called
that is, it persists in congregating in little patches
and leaving other patches quite bare. This can be
remedied by breathing on the picture, when the oil
will be found to flow quite evenly over it. The oil
20 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
should now be carefully wiped off again with a soft
brush, and the picture will be ready for painting on.
It should first of all be placed side by side with
the object, and looked at from the end of the room,
and in the looking-glass. If there be much wrong
with any of the tints it will be detected at once when
looked at in this way, especially as the painter comes
to it with a fresh eye. The picture should be left
side by side with the object, and the tones corrected
wherever necessary} the paint being now used quite
thinly, and put on with the brush. The painter should
always judge of the effect from the end of the room,
and should, from time to time, resort to the looking-
glass as a means of further refreshing his judgment.
When the general tones appear quite right the picture
should be brought away from the object, and the
larger details should be put in, the forms being care-
fully drawn with any brush that seems appropriate
the rule, however, being observed that a small brush
should not be used wherever a larger one can render
the form equally well.
Texture should be given when necessary by
dabbing the paint on roughly where uneven surfaces
occur ; but, except in these places, the paint should be
used thinly, so as to merely modify the first painting
without entirely obscuring it.
The subsequent paintings should all be in this
style ; finer and finer details being added, and
especially towards the last the edges should be very
carefully seen to ; texture always appears most at the
edges, and can only be thoroughly rendered by a
PRACTICE. 2 1
very careful attention to their character. Wherever
an edge appears quite sharp this should be given by
an actual edge of paint, but it is most important that
no edge should be painted sharply which is not quite
sharp in Nature ; draperies have hardly ever quite
sharp edges, but, of course, the degrees of sharpness
and smoothness vary indefinitely, and all these
degrees should be carefully rendered. Again, even
a sharp edge is generally lost sight of somewhere or
other, owing to its being of almost the same tone as
some object behind it. To this also great attention
should be paid. There is a curious tendency in the
human mind to imagine it sees a continuation of any
line when it knows that the object is continuous, and
this is a tendency against which the artist should be
particularly on his guard.
During the progress of these successive paintings
the study ought to be gradually getting more like the
object, until at last, when placed side by side with
the object, and looked at from the end of the room,
it ought, at first sight, to be almost doubtful which is
which. Even for a beginner, if he follow this method
it is quite possible to produce a picture which shall
be astonishingly like any simple object, and, indeed,
he must persevere until it is like the object ; for if it
look markedly unlike it in any particular he ought
to be able to see where the discrepancy lies, and to
correct it accordingly.
The study should be regarded as finished when it
looks so from the end of the room. If the room be of
large size this is compatible with considerable breadth
22 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
of treatment. It is a pity for the student to bother
himself with elaborate detail, which he can only see
when close to the object ; for there is no difficulty in
painting detail, the real difficulty lies in getting the
general truth of tone and tint.
And here it may be as well to define our terms a
little more precisely. Not only do natural objects
vary in hue, but also in degrees of light and shade,
and it is well to carefully distinguish between these
two kinds of variations. For instance, two objects
can be of the same darkness, but of different colours ;
or they can be of the same colour, but of different
degrees of darkness. Unfortunately, the terms gene-
rally used to express these variations are rather am-
biguous ; but there is sufficient authority to justify me
in using " tone " to express light and shade, and " tint "
to express colour or hue. For instance, I should say
of an object of a dark but strong red that it was low
(or dark) in tone, but rich (or strong) in tint. At any
rate, I propose to restrict the terms to these definite
meanings for the remainder of this work.
Of the two, undoubtedly, truth of tone is the more
difficult of attainment, especially to a beginner, and
this for a very curious reason. The light and shade
of objects are accidental peculiarities, and subject to
continual variations, whereas their colours are mostly
permanent, or, at any rate, only liable to small varia-
tions on account of difference of illumination. So in
thinking of objects we always see them mentally in
their true colours, but of no particular light and shade.
In fact the colour of an object helps to distinguish it
from other objects, and for that reason is important
to us. Its light and shade are accidental, and not
essential, peculiarities, and, being of comparatively
small importance to us, are habitually disregarded by
all who are not artists ; so much so that the natural
tendency of children when they begin to paint is to
leave out the shadows altogether, and merely to
paint every object with a uniform coat of its local
colour. Now, although we know better than that,
even as art students, yet this tendency hangs about
us in a curious way, so that hardly any beginner ever
makes his shadows nearly dark enough. Indeed, it
requires years of training before we are aware of the
true depth of shadow that a light object is capable of
It is in the correction of this tendency that the
palette-knife method is so very valuable. No amount
of mental prejudice can prevent the eye from passing
a sound judgment on two patches of tone placed in
I have treated of this matter a little more fully in
the theoretical portion of the book ; but it was neces-
sary to mention it here, as it helps to justify the very
severe method that I recommend.
The student should persevere for some time with
this painting of still life, and on no account should he
attempt landscape or figures, or live animals, or in-
deed anything that is apt to change its aspect, until
he has acquired the power of producing an accurate
likeness of a simple object. There is no reason that
this kind of study should be tedious or monotonous ;
24 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
with a little skill the most charming combinations of
colour can be produced out of very simple materials,
and, indeed, this should be part of his artistic training,
to see what combinations of colour and form are
harmonious and what are discordant. Unfortunately,
no rules can be given to guide him in this difficult
question of harmony ; he must try different com-
binations, and not be content until he gets some-
thing which he feels at once is beautiful. With a
continual striving after beauty will come increased
refinement of taste and certainty of judgment. At
least, if it do not, it is proof positive that he has
not the artistic spirit, and he had better direct his
energies to some other pursuit.
When the student can honestly say to himseli
that his studies of still life are thoroughly accurate,
he had better begin the practice of landscape. And
the sort of landscape he should choose is one that
most resembles the work he has been doing hitherto ;
that is, he should take some simple subject, seen
under the simplest possible effect, and, above all, one
that can be trusted to remain without much change
for some time together.
For instance, he should take a bit of old wall,
and only work at it when the sky is grey, leaving off
painting whenever the sun comes out. The painting
of sunlight must not be attempted for a long time,
for it is not only difficult on account of its dazzling
the eye, but it is also a terrible offender against our
law of reasonable permanency of effect, as every
shadow it throws is continually changing its position
Fortunately there are many grey days in England,
so there will be plenty of opportunity for landscape
study of the kind suited to a beginner.
The method of work should be much the same as
that pursued in the painting of still life. There will
be more difficulty in matching the tints with the
palette-knife, as the sky will generally be found to be
so bright that no paint can quite render its luminous
quality ; but almost everything else can be properly
matched, and this should always be done whenever
practicable. The canvas should be placed well out
in the open air, and should not be shaded by an
umbrella, which is really only necessary in the paint-
ing of sunlight. In fact, the picture should be in
much the same light as the object. Some inconve-
nience may be caused by the light shining through
the canvas, if the sky be very bright behind it. Of
course, this can always be remedied by putting some-
thing behind the canvas. A newspaper does as well
as anything else, and has the great advantage of
being easily procurable.
With all our precautions in choosing a simple
subject, and only working in grey days, it will be
found that anything out-of-doors is apt to change its
colour and tone in a very perplexing way. As it is
obviously useless to endeavour to correct our tones
and tints every time that the landscape looks differ-
ent to us, it is as well to be very careful in matching
them at first, and not correcting them unless we feel
quite convinced that they were wrong from the be-
ginning. All the tones should be put in on the first
26 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
day (as in painting the still life), and unless the day
has been very changeable, we shall feel sure that they
all go well together that is, that they represent the
same aspect of the scene ; whereas, if we lay in dif-
ferent parts of the landscape on different days, the
probability is that they will not go well together,
and will represent two or more quite incompatible
Once the tones have been laid in they should, as
I have already remarked, be left unmodified, except
for very good reasons. The subsequent work should
consist in putting in the details, and, if necessary,
correcting the drawing, which can be done at any
time, as, if the subject be well chosen, its forms will
remain the same from day to day.
Of course, the student need not confine himself to
pieces of wall or bits of outhouses, though these are
certainly the best for his first beginnings. He can
try his hand at trees and shrubs ; but, as a rule, he
had best not paint them too close, or all his energies
will be absorbed in struggling with the unmanageable
wealth of detail presented by the leaves and boughs,
and his attention will be distracted from the relative
tones and tints which should be his chief object of
study. He should avoid flowers for the present, as
they change too much ; and he should not attempt
elaborate distant views, as these also change, though
in a different way, as they are so much more affected
by varying atmospheric conditions than are objects
in the foreground. There is, besides, the great diffi-
culty of aerial perspective, which of course must be
grappled with at some future time, but for which the
student is hardly ripe as yet. I shall have something
to say on this subject later on, as the difficulties of
aerial perspective can be a good deal smoothed by
a proper understanding of its causes.
In painting out-of-doors the looking-glass should
on no account be neglected. A small hand-glass
should be as indispensable as the palette, and should
be constantly consulted. The so-called " Claude "
glasses, or black convex mirrors, are sometimes of
service, especially where the light is very strong, as
they tone the landscape down until it looks more
like a picture ; but one will scarcely be needed until
more difficult effects are attempted.
If possible, the painter should stand up to his
work, and should from time to time look at it from a
distance, especially from such a distance that it looks
of the same size as the bit of landscape that he is
painting. When simple landscapes seen under a
simple effect of light have been fairly mastered, it
will be as well to proceed to the study of figures.
This necessitates much more accurate draughts-
manship than the previous studies, so the student
should go back to his drawing for a while before he
attempts the difficult task of painting the human
figure. It is not that the drawing of figures is in
itself much more difficult than the drawing of any-
thing else, if due allowance be made for the fact that
no model, however well trained, can keep perfectly
still ; but that the human figure is so much better
known to us than any other objects, that very small
28 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
errors in the representation of it are intolerable to
any sensitive eye. An error of proportion, which
would be a matter of indifference in drawing a pot or
a pan, would be sufficient in drawing the human figure
to turn an Adonis into a deformed cripple. This
sense of form and proportion, which is strong even in
people who are not trained in drawing, should be
sedulously cultivated by the artist.
This sense undoubtedly was developed to its
highest pitch in the best days of Greek art. Never
has the human figure, as it ought to be that is, un-
spoilt by disease and misuse been so thoroughly
understood as it was by the great Athenian artists.
The best of the moderns can but follow falteringly in
their footsteps, and even the giants of the Renaissance,
in this respect at least, fell far below the standard ot
Phidias and Praxiteles. The reason of this is not far
to seek : it was not alone the genius with which the
Greek artists were so fully endowed (indeed it would
be difficult to suppose that their natural gifts excelled
those of Michael Angelo), but also that the circum-
stances of their lives enabled them to see the perfection
of the human form more frequently, and under better
conditions than has been possible in any subsequent
civilisation. As it is obvious that we cannot repro-
duce this side of the Greek life, we must do the best
we can with the limited resources at our disposal. In
the first place we must avail ourselves of the ex-
perience of the Greeks by studying their statues. In
these we get the human form at its best far better
than we shall ever see it in the life ; so there can be no
better training in the discrimination of what is healthy
and beautiful in men and women than a severe course
of drawings from casts of antique statues.
But our training must not end there ; we must go
to work in the same way that the Greeks did, and
learn to work from living men and women. Unfor-
tunately, the men and women who are available to us
as models are mostly of a very inferior type to those
splendid creatures from whom the Greek statues were
carved ; still, if we take trouble enough, we can get
men and women to work from sufficiently well-made
not to displease even a taste made critical by a study
of the antique. I think it is never worth while to
work from models who are positively ugly. It is a
dangerous thing to the artist to get used to ugliness
in any form.
As I have said, it is a mere question of taking
trouble ; we shall never find the ideal figure, but we
shall find many figures that do not depart too far
from what ought always to be our standard the
I am afraid I cannot quit this subject without
touching upon a prejudice that seems to exist in
some worthy people against the employment of nude
In the first place, I assert most positively that
without study from the nude there is no serious figure
painting possible. If the artist have conscientious
objections to this kind of study he must confine him-
self to landscapes and still life. It matters not what
kind of figure-pictures he wishes to paint, he will
30 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
never be able to draw the figure properly, whether
draped or otherwise, unless he has gone through a
preliminary course of study from the nude. Indeed,
in any case of difficult draughtsmanship of draped
figures, it is advisable to put the undraped form upon
the canvas first and then to add the draperies. This
is a precaution against error that may not seem
superfluous to even the most self-confident modern
painter, when he recollects the studies that exist for
many of Raffaelle's most celebrated pictures (in-
cluding the Transfiguration), in which all the figures
are represented nude.
Some difficulty exists in the case of ladies who
are studying art, but I think it may be fairly met by
the male models being partially draped, as was the
custom in my time at the Slade School. To some
well-meaning persons it appears particularly shocking
that women should study from nude female models.
I have never been able to understand this view, and I
am consequently unable to argue the question. Of
course there is never any necessity for men and
women to study from the nude model together.
In conclusion, it may be safely said that there is
something essentially false and unhealthy in the
feeling that the human body is in itself indecent and
objectionable, and the sooner every lover of art gets
rid of this feeling the better.
Although it is not strictly within the province of
this handbook, yet it may be as well to give a few
hints as to the sort of drawing that is especially useful
as a preparation to the practice of figure painting.
PRACTICE. 3 1
In the first place anything like elaborate stippling,
or, indeed, any finicking work, should be absolutely
eschewed. The figures should be carefully modelled,
but the effect should always be got in the simplest
and broadest way.
For this reason I strongly recommend that the
shading should be done with the stump. The eftect
will be more like that of oil painting than any work
done with the point could be, and the execution also
is not dissimilar. It is also a very speedy process
which is a thing not to be despised ; for, although a
painter should never be in a hurry, yet he should
always wish to do his work in the shortest possible
time. There is too much to learn in painting for
any man to allow himself to dawdle over it so he
should never do in ten minutes what he can do equally
well in five. Of course it must also be recollected
that he should never do in five minutes what he can
do better in ten.
When a sufficient power of drawing has been
gained in this way, it is as well to do one or two
paintings from a cast. These paintings should not be
monochromes that is, black-and-white drawings in
oil paint but should be true paintings, reproducing
with great care every variety of shade and colour in
the cast. It is better that the cast should be an old
one, so that it is of some definite colour. A quite
new white cast is a very difficult thing to paint,
and requires a delicacy in the perception of minute
differences of colour which it is hardly fair to expect
in a beginner. For it must be recollected that even a
32 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
white cast is not mere black-and-white : it is sure to
have colour of some sort, if only that reflected fom
the surrounding walls.
As regards colour, any cast is a difficult thing
to paint indeed, almost as difficult as the human
figure; but then it has the great advantage of
not altering its colour, as the human figure is
apt to do from day to day, and even from hour
to hour, to say nothing of its remaining quite
The method of painting should be the same as we
have already described for our pots and pans ; but
particular attention should be paid to the blending of
one tint into another, so that the modelling shall
appear rounded and delicate.
When we finally come to painting the human
figure, we should still persevere with our original
method; but we must look out very carefully for
minute differences of tint : and, above all, we must
pay great attention to the texture. Quite apart
from the question of colour, any one can see that a
cast looks as if it were made of a different kind of
stuff from human flesh : it looks much harder, and
less transparent ; and this difference should be care-
fully preserved in our paintings. How, then, shall
we give the proper texture to our flesh painting ?
This is chiefly to be done by paying great atten-
tion to the edges. The outlines of a cast are
uniformly sharp all over, and should be so painted.
The human figure, on the other hand, is covered
with little hairs, too minute to be seen separately,
except quite close, but sufficiently visible to render
the outlines soft and blurred. These hairs are much
more abundant in some places than in others, and
in some few places they are quite absent. These
differences should be carefully rendered in all flesh
painting. For instance, even in women they are
very abundant on the upper lip, whereas they are
generally absent along the ridge of the nose. Again
the human skin is partly transparent, and this in
itself makes the edges softer than those of a cast.
In places the colouring of the skin is slightly
broken and mottled ; this is nearly always the case
to some extent on the cheeks even in people with
very good skins. In such places the colour must be
put on accordingly ; that is, one or two different tints
should be dabbed on separately, and not smoothed
too much into one another. Of course, there are all
sorts of differences of texture in different individuals,
and they should all be carefully rendered. Wherever
the skin seems rough, or covered with wrinkles too
fine to be seen separately, the paint should be put on
roughly ; and generally in the first painting the brush-
marks should be so put on as to indicate the general
direction of any furrows or crinkles in the skin. Hair
should be painted with a large brush in the first place,
and every endeavour should be made, by brushing the
paint on lightly and dexterously, to indicate the lie of
the separate fibres. Then in the finishing, wherever a
stray hair or two are seen definitely from a consider-
able distance, they should be put in separately with a
34 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
Of course, not much can be done in words to
explain all the difficulties of flesh painting, but the
learner must persevere until his picture looks fleshy ;
if it will not look like flesh he must ask himself why
it does not, and to such a question, honestly put, he
can generally find an answer.
The study of draperies should now be begun in
good earnest. It is as well, in the first stage of still-
life painting, to introduce a bit of stuff here and there,
and carefully study its folds ; but for the systematic
study of draperies there is nothing like a lay figure.
It is true that these substitutes for the living model
should be looked at very askance, and discarded when-
ever practicable ; but it is too much to ask a beginner
to paint draperies carefully from a living model who
is quite certain to disarrange them before an hour has
passed and, once disarranged, they can never be put
back again. It is very difficult to draw folds well,
and it is essential that the beginner should be able to
work away at them until he has thoroughly rendered
all their delicacies. Every different kind of stuff goes
into a different kind of fold, and it is hopeless to try
to render the texture of draperies without paying
great attention to the character of the folds. Once
arranged on the lay figure, they can be studied day
after day until the student feels that, given sufficient
time, he can paint any drapery in a satisfactory
manner. He should then endeavour to shorten the
necessary time until it is possible to finish simple
bits of drapery during the short time that the living
model can keep quiet. Indeed, his constant aim
should be to acquire such masterly rapidity that
the lay figure can be dispensed with, and all
draperies painted from the model ; but the pre-
liminary practice from the lay figure is indispens-
able, as giving a standard of accurate work which
must be preserved with great care, even when the
conditions are much more difficult.
Before I quit the subject of figure painting I
must say a few words on anatomy.
Now, it is quite possible to overrate the import-
ance of anatomy to the artist ; no amount of know-
ledge of bones and muscles can allow us to dispense
with direct observation of the figure whenever we
wish to paint it, and this observation of the surface of
the figure is quite sufficient to enable us to paint it
well without our troubling ourselves with what there
is beneath the surface. It is true that when our
models are poor and ill-defined in form, a knowledge
of anatomy is of service in enabling us to supple-
ment their deficiencies ; but, even then, the study of
antique statues is more valuable, as it is one thing to
know the shape of a muscle or a bone in themselves,
and another to know what they look like when
covered with skin and padded with fat. No one has
ever equalled the ancient Greek artists in their know-
ledge of the superficial aspects of the human body,
but it is certain that they were almost entirely
ignorant of anatomy.
At the same time, I will not deny that a study of
the more obvious facts of anatomy is useful to the
student, especially in the representation of motion,
36 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
where, of course, direct observation of the model does
not help us much ; but we must always be on our
guard against letting our knowledge override our
observation. There is hardly anything in art more
offensive than an elaborate display of misplaced
anatomical knowledge, such as figures showing every
muscle in their bodies, " looking," as Leonardo says,
"for all the world like bags of walnuts." In fact,
anatomy is a good servant, but a bad master. Unless
great care be used it is apt to encourage that (artis-
tically) pernicious tendency of the natural man to
represent things not as he sees them, but as he
imagines they really are.
The next stage may well be the study of por-
traiture. This is especially valuable as giving a new
standard of accuracy ; we have hitherto been content
to make our pots and pans like pots and pans,
and our human beings like human beings. Now,
to make a picture which shall not only be like a
human being in general, but so like one human being
in particular that all his friends and relations shall
agree that it is like htm, demands a much further
degree of accuracy.
I shall have something to say on the subject of
true portrait painting, which is a very difficult and
highly specialised kind of art; but the sort of portrai-
ture that I should recommend to the student is a very
different matter, in which hardly anything should be
aimed at beyond mere accuracy of resemblance.
For the purposes of study the sitter should be treated
as a model, and kept as still as possible, whilst the
painter's sole endeavour should be to represent him
as he looks at the moment, without any regard to his
most characteristic expression, or his most favourable
aspect. But a good likeness must be aimed at, or
that special test of accuracy will be missed which
consists in the picture resembling one particular
human being, and resembling him so strongly that
there can be no shadow of a doubt for whom the
picture is meant.
Such is, roughly, the course of study that I should
recommend. It should be persevered with until the
power has been gained of accurately representing
anything that will remain still enough to be copied
directly from nature. If pursued with due earnest-
ness it will be found very interesting, and although
to some soaring spirits this humdrum accuracy may
appear very degrading, it must be recollected that it
is only a means to an end, and that without a certain
power of depicting natural objects the most poetic ima-
ginings must fail to produce their proper pictorial effect.
It is true that, so far, the student has been pre-
vented from exercising either his imagination or his
memory. His painting has been the result of simple
observation, nothing more. Now, I should never
think of denying that imagination is a quality to be
cultivated, and that memory is essential for the paint-
ing of fleeting effects; but there is a time for all things,
and these qualities should be kept in abeyance for the
present, for, if indulged in too early, they can hardly
fail to be fatal to that habit of accuracy which is the
foundation of all good painting.
38 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
When this accuracy has become a second nature
with the painter, then he may, and, indeed, ought, to
indulge his imagination ; but not before. If he has
the right stuff in him it will be none the worse for
keeping ; indeed, there is nothing so deadening to the
imagination as to try to express it with inadequate
We will now endeavour to advance a step beyond
the mere copying of what we see before us.
The choice of a subject for a picture is one of
great difficulty. That this is so may be readily in-
ferred from the fact that the old masters went on
painting the same narrow range of subjects one after
another ; while the moderns, in their efforts to be
original, generally succeed in getting extremely bad
A really good subject should be in the first place
interesting ; that is, it ought to arrest our attention
and set us thinking. It ought, if possible, to be beau-
tiful, and it ought to more or less explain itself ; that
is, one should be able to guess at the general nature
of the incident without having recourse to an elabo-
rate written explanation. It is true that many fine
pictures do not fulfil these requirements, but I venture
to think that they would be still finer if they did. Of
course the finest subject in the world can only make
a bad picture if it be badly painted. In fact, the
finer the subject, the more it is necessary to paint it
well ; and I hold it to be equally true that a picture
that is fine in drawing and colouring is a fine picture,
even if it have no subject at all.
This latter truth is one not readily recognised
by the outside public ; but artists are so much im-
pressed by it, that they will often say that a pic-
ture is the better for having no subject at all. I
distinctly differ from this opinion ; but I think that no
subject is better than a bad one i.e., a radically un-
pictorial subject, or one that is inadequately treated.
It is customary to divide subjects into two classes
historical and genre ; but the line between them is
very difficult to draw. To my mind the great dis-
tinction is between modern and non-modern subjects.
For many reasons modern subjects ought to be
After all, what is going on around us at the pre-
sent day is more interesting to a healthy mind than
all the records of the buried past. And again, modern
subjects have the great advantage that they can be
so much more truthfully rendered. All historical
painting is more or less guess-work, and is certain to
be false in many particulars ; a falsehood which may
pass muster to-day, but which will probably be found
out eventually, as historical research advances.
But then comes another consideration, which
almost irresistibly drives us back upon the past.
For one cause or another our modern life is ugly,
especially the side of it with which the painter comes
in contact. There probably never has been anything
so unpictorial since the world began as the ordinary
appearance of our respectable classes, and it is
amongst these worthy but unpictorial people that the
painter mostly dwells. There are still elements of
40 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
picturesqueness to be found amongst the labouring
classes, but even these are getting scarce. However,
there is undoubtedly good work to be done here,
but it must be done thoroughly, and not merely
looked at from a distance. No one has ever painted
peasants like Millet did, but then he was a peasant
himself, and lived amongst them. For the painter
who can live amongst the common people, and can
thoroughly enter into their lives and habits, there is
the possibility of most interesting pictures. Of course,
for picturesqueness we must go to the rural poor ; but
even the poor of the great cities afford splendid mate-
rial for the sympathetic painter for their lives offer
scenes where pathos or dramatic intensity can amply
atone for the lack of beauty. But there are not many
artists who are content to do this, and, indeed, it is
hardly to be expected of them, for we all love asso-
ciation with kindred spirits, and whatever virtues
the poor may possess, an appreciation of art is not
one of them. Again, there is too much absolute
ugliness in their lives inbetween the flashes of pic-
turesqueness, to make living in their midst other
than painful to a sensitive artist. So for the most
part we are content to go to history for our sub-
jects if we have subjects at all, and do not confine
our art to the painting of single figures of attractive
young women doing nothing in particular in various
For one thing, the field of history is so vast that
it is very odd if we cannot find something in it that
will suit our taste.
Are we fond of gorgeous colouring, rich stuffs, and
costly accessories ? There is the whole of the Middle
Ages to choose from, culminating in the Italian Re-
naissance, when perhaps the brilliancy of life attained
its highest development. Do we love the human
figure ? We have only to turn to classical times
and we shall find plenty of subjects which give
scope to all our draughtsmanship and powers
of flesh painting. Then, if we wish to paint beau-
tiful people, untrammelled by any considerations
of historical accuracy, we can revel in the whole field
of Greek and Roman mythology. Or if we wish our
painting to appeal to the most deep-seated feelings
of our race, we can choose our subject from the Old
and New Testament which perhaps is the best choice
for a mediocre painter, who feels that his pictures
are hardly good enough to be liked for themselves
alone. But whatever period we choose, and whether
we treat some well-known historical incident or
simply confine ourselves to some possible, if unre-
corded scene, we should spare no trouble to make
our picture consistent with the best attainable know-
ledge on the subject.
Some painters are apt to spare themselves this
trouble, and think they are giving proof of imagina-
tion when they are only showing their ignorance ; but
there can be no excuse for carelessness in this respect.
There is plenty of scope for imagination in animat-
ing the dry bones of archaeology. Imagination is
not antagonistic to knowledge. On the contrary, the
highest imagination is that which can assimilate all
42 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
kinds of knowledge and make use of it as a vantage
ground from which to soar to higher things.
When the subject has been chosen, what is the
proper course to pursue ?
Before making the slightest sketch, before even
thinking of the composition of the picture, the painter
should familiarise himself with all the surroundings
of his subject. He should know how the people
were dressed if they are historical characters, what
they looked like what were their habits and customs,
what houses they lived in, what scenery surrounded
them. Having got fairly clear ideas on all these
points, he should let his imagination play round the
subject, until it seems to make some kind of mental
image. If this mental image appear to be fairly
well suited for a picture, a rough sketch should be
made of it in charcoal. Should the image seem
hopelessly unpictorial, the subject must be turned
about in the mind until some image of better promise
When the charcoal sketch has been made, the
figures should be altered and shifted about until the
lines of the composition seem fairly satisfactory.
Then a little coloured sketch should be made, with no
pretensions to accuracy of any kind, but merely giving
the rough idea of the colouring and the light and
shade. This also should be knocked about until the
result seems promising. Then models should be
selected with great care as appropriate as possible to
the personages of the picture.
It sometimes happens that a model with an
unsuitable figure will have a suitable face, and vice-
versA. When this is the case, two models or more
must be employed for one figure ; but this should
be avoided if possible. If the figures be in difficult
positions, or if they be required to represent people
more beautiful and graceful than ordinary humanity,
they should be drawn in carefully from the nude
before any costumes are attempted. If action have
to be represented, it is as well to make separate
studies in charcoal. These studies should be as rapid
as is consistent with a fair amount of accuracy, and
should keep more closely to the model than is quite
advisable for the picture. When a satisfactory study
has been made, it can be copied on to the picture with
as much added vigour and grace as the draughtsman
is capable of giving.
Of course, we must here abandon all idea of
slavishly copying the model. If action is required
no model can possibly take up the right position for
more than a very short space of time, if, indeed, it
be possible to take it up at all. The artist must get
an intelligent model, and work as best he can from
momentary glimpses. He must give the model
plenty of rest, and trust more to his memory than to
actual copying. Again, very few models are suffi-
ciently well proportioned for ideal or classical figures ;
so the drawings made from them must be corrected
from a knowledge of the antique. Indeed, it is an
excellent thing to have a cast or two from really fine
statues to refer to from time to time, but they will
not be of much use unless his previous training from
44 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
the antique has well saturated the painter's mind with
a knowledge of fine proportions.
Most of the female models of the present day are
apt to be stumpy, i.e., short in the leg. This must be
corrected in all figures with any pretension to dignity
or grace. The fault generally lies chiefly in the lower
leg, that is, from the knee downwards.
The requisite costumes must either be hired, or,
if this be impossible, made for the occasion. There
are costumiers in London with a very good collec-
tion of mediaeval and last century dresses. Greek
costumes are so simple that they had always best
One thing should be recollected in painting
classical costumes, and that is, that we have derived
from the statues a very erroneous idea of their plain-
ness and absence of decoration.
The vase - paintings and the little terra - cotta
figures abundantly prove that they were often elabo-
rately ornamented and brightly coloured. I have
found myself that questions of Greek and Roman
costumes are very satisfactorily dealt with in Rich's
" Dictionary of Antiquities/' which, indeed, in all
respects, is particularly valuable for the sort of in-
formation required by artists.
In anything like elaborate draperies the great
difficulty arises of how to paint them from the living
model. Of course the model cannot keep still in-
definitely, and once folds are disarranged one can
never get them back again into the same condition ;
on the other hand, if the draperies be arranged on the
lay figure, they are sure to look stiff and lifeless. I
think, wherever it is possible, they should be painted
from the living model, a bit being finished at a time,
and then a new bit being taken up after the model
has rested ; but where the draperies are too elaborate
to be treated in this manner, they should be roughly
sketched in from the living model, and then arranged
in as nearly as possible the same folds on the lay
figure, from which they should be finished, the main
lines of the first sketch being scrupulously adhered to.
The accessories should be painted, wherever it is
possible, from real objects. Where this is not possible,
real objects should be selected which somewhat re-
semble the required forms. With a little practice
very realistic results may be obtained in this way.
If the background be a landscape it should be
painted from an actual study of some, similar scenery,
aided, if necessary, by photographs of the country
where the incident takes place. If the background
be a building, it must be carefully drawn in, according
to the rules of perspective, with all the architectural
details taken from the best authorities. In the paint-
ing the light and shade should be carefully calculated,
and, when possible, studied from some actual building
which more or less resembles the ideal one.
In painting the figures a background should be
put up behind the model which more or less repre-
sents the background of the picture, and great care
should be taken to arrange the lighting of the studio
so as to resemble the lighting of the picture. This is,
of course, difficult when the scene is supposed to take
46 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
place out of doors ; but even then it is generally
possible to paint in a conservatory, or even in a
garden. But where this is not possible, the painting
from the model must be modified by observation oi
how people look out of doors.
In spite of all these precautions, it is likely enough
that the picture will miss that air of reality that we
have striven so hard to impress upon it. Well, if any
particular part of the picture seem at fault, it must be
ruthlessly scraped out and painted over again. It will
at first be found difficult to avoid a patchy effect from
thus taking out and repainting isolated bits : but a little
practice will soon prevent the patchiness from being
at all glaring, and it is certainly hopeless to endeavour
to paint a picture that will not require alteration.
When all is done that can be done the picture should
at least look real. Of course, it may be badly com-
posed, and entirely dull and unimaginative ; but even
then it will not be utterly despicable if the individual
parts be well painted ; and if the imagination be there
it will strike the spectator the more vividly in that the
scene looks real.
It is possible, and indeed very advantageous, to
combine with the painting of subject pictures some
other branch of our art, such as portraiture or land-
scape painting. When portraiture is taken up seriously
for its own sake, and not merely as a means of study,
it becomes a very elevated and difficult form of art.
It is true, it makes no demands on the imagination,
and the problems it presents are very simple ; but
from their very simplicity arises a special difficulty.
How is it possible to make an interesting picture out
of a commonplace person in the costume of the pre-
sent day? It must be acknowledged that in some
cases the problem is hopeless. There are some
portraits which, at the best, can only be interesting to
artists on account of their technical merits, but which
to the general public must be simply ugly and dull.
But it is seldom, after all, that we come across an
absolutely commonplace subject; when we do we
must resign ourselves to it, for it would be contrary
to the fundamental principles of portraiture to make
the picture other than commonplace. But we can
always endeavour to paint it well, and make it like
and characteristic, and that in itself is no small
There are one or two general considerations which
ought to guide us in our treatment of portraits.
In the first place, the painter has a duty towards
the people who give him his commissions. He must
do his best to please them, in so far as he can do so
without violence to his artistic conscience. That is,
if they want a profile, he must be prepared to do
them a profile, even if he should himself prefer to do
a full-face ; again, they should be given a voice in the
question of the costume the victim should wear, and
even, if necessary, as to the sort of expression he
should put on. Of course, the artist should give his
advice on all these points, but he need not insist on
its being followed. After all, he ought to be able to
paint a good portrait of a man in a uniform as well
as in a shooting-coat, and most men have different
48 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
expressions at different times, and any expression
that a man often puts on is fit to be immortalised in
But there are some points that the painter should
be firm about. He should never flatter his sitter ; he
should paint him at his best, if he can, but that is all.
He should never make him younger or better looking
than he is, nor give him an amiable expression if he
never does anything but scowl, nor put him in a
graceful attitude if he is essentially ungraceful.
These things are against the artistic conscience,
and no amount of entreaty should make the artist
yield an inch in the direction of flattery ; but when
there is a legitimate choice of treatment, then the
family should have their way. After all, it is they
who have to live with the picture.
But supposing the choice in all these matters is
left unreservedly to the painter, what principles ought
to guide him in the composition of his picture ? The
main thing to be borne in mind is that the portrait
must be characteristic. The costume should be one
that is often worn by the sitter ; the pose must be one
that he naturally assumes ; the accessories must be in
accordance with his habits and tastes. His expression
must also be fairly habitual ; not a mere momentary
one, which gives no clue to his character. Within
these limits the painter should endeavour to make his
sitter and his picture look their best ; that is, he
should put his sitter in the light and shade which
best suits him, and should arrange the colouring and
accessories of his picture so as to produce the most
harmonious whole. This is a matter of considerable
difficulty, even in such a simple thing as a portrait ;
and nearly the whole of the first sitting can be profit-
ably spent in arranging the picture. Then the artist
should struggle manfully to prevent his sitter from
being bored. This is one of the great difficulties of
portrait painting, and can in most cases be best met
by encouraging the sitter to talk. Talking to him is
not nearly so efficacious, besides being much more
distracting to the artist. If the sitter will not talk,
the next best plan is to get some one to read to him ;
but amused he must be at all costs, or the portrait
will inevitably reflect the patient misery of the sub-
ject. Nor should the sitter be bullied about sitting
very still ; of course, he must not be allowed to
fidget too much, but a man who is always thinking
of his position can hardly help looking awkward and
constrained ; and above all, he must be given a rest
whenever he wants it : and, even if he do not want it,
he must have one as soon as he looks tired.
When all is done that can be done, the success of
the portrait will depend in a great measure on whether
the sitter be a good subject or not, and unfortunately
the professed portrait painter can hardly pick and
choose ; but there is nothing to prevent his looking
out for interesting sitters amongst his friends and
acquaintances, and offering to paint them for nothing
an offer that will seldom be refused. In this way he
can always be sure of having some interesting por-
traits to do if he be willing to make some slight
5O A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
Landscape painting can very well be combined
with the other two branches ; it makes an admirable
relief to portrait painting, and is a useful training for
figure pictures, which are too often spoilt by the
poverty of their landscape backgrounds.
There are two ways of painting landscape, both of
which, in competent hands, have yielded admirable
results. One is to concentrate one's attention on
evanescent effects ; the other to give, as it were, a
portrait of a scene in which the effect is subsidiary to
the rendering of form and local colour. The first, to
be well done, requires great knowledge and study,
and is best adapted to the professed landscape
painter, who can give his whole time to the pursuit.
The second is more fitted to the portrait or figure-
painter, who wishes to take up landscape as a relief
from his other work. Turner's landscapes are typical
of the one kind, Millais's of the other The methods
suitable to these two kinds of landscape painting are
essentially different. The first must necessarily be
done from studies, most of them very rapid and
incomplete, aided by memory and knowledge. The
second kind should be painted entirely on the spot,
by which means a wealth of detail and a truthfulness
of colouring can be attained which can never be
rivalled by studio work.
If the picture be of any size, a shed should be
built in which the painter can stand whilst at work.
The front and one side should be open to give plenty
of light ; a roof and two sides facing towards the
prevailing winds will generally be shelter enough. Of
PRACTICE. 5 1
course, if the roof can have the luxury of a skylight,
so much the better. The shed can then have three
walls, being merely open towards the landscape. I
believe that Millais's landscapes were all painted in
this way ; at any rate, the best of them were so
painted, so there can be no doubt as to the possibility
of producing quite first-rate works by this method,
which is the one I should recommend to all who
are not professed landscape painters.
I need not pursue these practical hints any further.
I will add a short account of what I have been able to
gather as to other methods of work, and I will then
treat of the theoretical principles which underlie the
whole art of painting, some of which will be found of
considerable practical utility.
I will begin my account of some other methods
of oil painting with the directions drawn up for the
South Kensington Schools by Mr. Poynter, and
which, on account probably of their unbending
character, are called by the students " The Laws
of the Medes and Persians " :
DIRECTIONS FOR OIL PAINTING, DRAWN UP BY THE PRIN-
CIPAL OF THE NATIONAL ART TRAINING SCHOOL, FOR
USE IN THE SCHOOLS.
Colours to be used : Flake White, Raw Umber, Blue Black
and when the colour of the cast requires them, Yellow Ochre,
Raw Sienna, Burnt Sienna.
52 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
Mix up a tint with the palette-knife :
For the Shadows.
For the darker Half-tint.
For the light Half-tints or general colour of the Casts.
Match the tints with the knife against the cast, so as to get
the colour as true as possible. The tints must be of the pre-
vailing colour of the shadow, or half-tints required.
If there is any quantity of strong reflection in the shadows,
which contrasts in a marked manner with the cast shadows, mix
up an additional tint for the reflections.
N.B. In matching the tints against the cast, the knife must
be held in the full light between the eye and the cast, but so that
there shall be no " shine or glare " on the paint.
If the student is working in the full light of the window, and
the cast is in the darker part of the room, he must go near to
the cast to match the tints, or they will be too dark ; otherwise
he may match them from his place.
Make a careful outline of the cast in charcoal, and before
beginning to paint, draw in the outline with a sable brush filled
with raw umber thinned with turpentine. It is most important
that the outline shall be finished and correct before beginning to
The painting should be so done that it should be finished
at the first painting ; it is therefore necessary that no more
be begun in the morning than can be completed in the day.
First lay in the shadows with the shadow-tint, painting a
little over the line of transition between the light and shade, so
as to have some colour to paint into. Next to this lay in the
darker half-tint, painting it into the shadows, but not passing
beyond the transition line, or the drawing will be lost ; and
carry this tint as far as necessary toward the light, mixing with
it some of the lighter half-tints as it graduates towards the
light, following of course the gradations and drawing of the
Next cover the lighter parts with the lighter half-tint, and if
the spaces of highest light be large, mix white with the tint,
imitating the gradations in the cast.
Next paint the reflections into the shadows, mixing white, or
white and yellow ochre, or yellow ochre only, with the shadow-
tint to lighten it, according to the greater or less degree of
warmth in the reflection ; and paint in the darker parts of the
shadow (picking out the forms) by mixing raw umber, black, and
raw or burnt sienna, with the shadow-tint, following in each case
the gradations in the cast.
Next get rid of any too abrupt transition between the
shadow and the darker half-tint by laying on intermediate
tints between them, being most careful not to lose the draw-
ing at this part, which is the most difficult gradation to render
in the painting.
In the same way correct any false tones in the half-tints by
laying on the right colour over the places which are wrong.
Finally, when the modelling is complete, put on the highest
lights with a full brush, taking care that the colour used is
If these directions are attended to, and the right tints are
laid on in the right places, there will be no need to re-touch ;
and the work may be taken up the next day where it was left
To prevent an awkward join between the two days' work, do
not leave off at an outline, but carry the paint a little over the
edge ; and begin the next day's work with some of the same (or
exactly similar) colour, painting a little of the edge of the pre-
vious day's work ; the join will then not be visible.
No glazing is ever necessary. Use no Medium.
Use round brushes rather than flat, as it is impossible to
draw with flat brushes ; but flat brushes may be used to cover
arge spaces, and are occasionally useful in other cases.
If the work when dry is entirely wrong, it may be re-painted
in solid colour, without medium ; but if, when the whole work is
completed at the first painting, re-touching or more finish is
necessary, a little oil or other medium rubbed thinly on will
enable the student to work over in thin colour.
There is no reason why one painting should not be sufficient,
as practice will enable the student to produce highly modelled,
correct, and finished work ; but it must be understood that the
painting is not to be left rough or unfinished in execution.
-54 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
Painting in Colour.
Proceed exactly as in Monochrome Painting. The colours
to be used in flesh are :
Flake White. Burnt Sienna. Raw Umber.
Yellow Ochre. Light Red. Burnt Umber.
Raw Sienna. Vermilion. Blue Black.
Terra Verte and Cobalt may also be used.
It will be seen at once that my system is merely a
modification of Mr. Poynter's. Indeed, I have derived
it directly from his teaching at the Slade School, where
I was one of his students. Nevertheless, I have some
criticisms to make on the laws of the Medes and
Persians, which may serve to show the points of differ-
ence in the two systems.
My first criticism is purely verbal. What is de-
scribed as monochrome painting is nothing of the kind ;
it is merely the painting of an object which has got
very little colour in it. True monochrome painting
is like a drawing : it makes no pretence to reproduce
the colour of the object depicted. But the essence of
this system is that the colour should be rigorously
matched. One of the complaints I have to make
against the rules is their want of generality. Painting
a cast is the same sort of thing as painting anything
else, and does not require directions all to itself; nor
do I think it good to recommend a special assortment
of colours for the purpose. It is better that the
student should always be equipped with his full
palette. Even in a cast a tint may crop up which
cannot be properly represented by the limited assort-
ment of colours recommended by Mr. Poynter,
PRACTICE. 5 5
The want of generality applies also to the routine
suggested as to the first laying on of the shadow, &c.
If the cast be in full light, there is practically no
shadow; but the painting of an object in full light is
as valuable an exercise as any other indeed, in some
ways, more valuable. It is better, in my opinion, to
give the general rule: that a separate tint should be
mixed for every considerable patch on the object that
has a different colour from the rest. Whether this
difference depends on local colour or on light and
shade is quite immaterial.
Another small criticism is that I object to the
recommendation of round brushes rather than flat. It
is quite untrue that it is impossible to draw with flat
brushes, and they have the great advantage that they
will give a broad or narrow touch according to the way
in which they are held. With a round brush it is im-
possible to modify the touch to nearly the same extent
as with a flat one.
But my chief criticism concerns the injunction to
finish a bit at a time. Now, it is quite true that in
this way a certain freshness of execution is gained
which is very attractive, but I hold strongly that for
the student execution is of minor consequence. It
will be sure to come with practice later on, and can
fairly be left to take care of itself for the present. If
the student pay too much attention to his execution
he is sure to neglect the really important matter, which
is to secure absolute truth of tone and tint. Now, it
is very difficult to attain this with one painting,
especially as it is almost impossible to judge of the
56 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
correctness of isolated tones when the rest of the
canvas is blank. The great advantage of filling up
the canvas at once is that then all the tones are seen
with their proper surroundings. It may be said
that with the rigorous use of the palette - knife
the tones are sure to be right, whatever their
surroundings may be ; and it is quite true that
they will not be far wrong if the method be pro-
perly pursued. But, after all, it is rather a rough
and ready way of securing accuracy : invaluable as lay-
ing a foundation, but not sufficiently delicate for the
finishing. To my mind, the true method is to use
the palette-knife to get a roughly accurate general
map of the different tones and tints of the object,
and then to modify this sketch by painting thinly
over it until a much greater degree of accuracy has
been gained. But to do this the eye must have every
advantage. It will never be able to compare accu-
rately a mere patch of colour in the middle of a white
canvas with the portion of the object it is intended to
represent, surrounded by all sorts of colours. Again,
quite apart from the question of colour, it is too much
to expect of a student to get his detail and his
texture quite right at the first painting. He ought to
aim at it, but he certainly will not achieve it, and he
must never hesitate to correct anything which seems
wrong, even at the risk of making his painting look
messy. But, further, in the painting of pictures, it is
well known that it is almost hopeless to endeavour to
arrive at a true general effect by finishing each part at
a single sitting. As a rule, every bit of it has to be
worked on again and again until the whole comes
right. And as this working over and over is very
difficult to do without getting into a mess, so there
is every reason that the student should practise it
from the beginning.
It is true that there are some painters who do con-
trive to finish their pictures bit by bit, each part of
the picture showing only one painting ; but it is im-
possible to do this with any success without con-
tinually scraping out bits that are not good enough,
and painting them over again from the beginning. If
this be done with great patience and determination,
the result may be good ; but it will be generally found
that the picture is patchy, and that freshness of exe-
cution has been gained at the expense of the far
more valuable qualities of general truth and of har-
mony of effect. At any rate, it is beyond dispute
that the finest pictures have been painted by the other
process: that of continually working over and over
until the requisite effect has been gained.
It may be useful to compare with Mr. Poynter's
method the one pursued in Paris, at the well-known
atelier of M. Carolus Duran, an account of which has
been given me by a friend, and which I will reproduce
nearly in his own words :
" The model was posed on Monday, always in full
light, without shadow effect, and against a strongly-
coloured background, which we had to imitate exactly
in its relations to the figure. The figure was drawn
in in charcoal, then we were allowed to take a sable
and strengthen the outline with some dark colour
58 A MANUAL OF OH- PAINTING.
mixed with turpentine, but not to make any prepara-
tion, nor put in conventional brown shadows. The
palette was set as follows :
" Black, verte emeraude, raw umber, cobalt, laque
ordinaire, brun rouge or light red, yellow ochre, and
white (the colours being placed on the palette in this
order from left to right).
" We were supposed to mix two or three grada-
tions of yellow ochre with white, two of light red with
white, two of cobalt with white, and also of black and
raw umber to facilitate the choice of tones.
"We were not allowed any small brushes, at any
rate for a long time many months or years.
" On Tuesday Duran came to criticise and correct
the drawing, or the laying in of the painting if it was
sufficiently advanced. We blocked in the curtain first,
and then put in the figure or face in big touches like
a coarse wooden head hewn with a hatchet ; in fact,
in a big mosaic, not bothering to soften things down,
but to get the right amount of light and the proper
colour, attending first to the highest light. The hair,
&c., was not smoothed into the flesh at first, but just
pasted on in the right tone like a coarse wig ; then
other touches were placed on the junctions of the big
mosaic touches, to model them and make the flesh
more supple. Of course, these touches were a grada-
tion between the touches they modelled. All was
solid, and there were no gradations by brushing the
stuff off the lights gently into the darks or vice versa ;
because Duran wished us to actually make and match
each bit of the tone of the surface. He came again
on Friday to criticise, and on that day we finished
It will be seen that this system bears a consider-
able resemblance to Mr. Poynter's, the chief differ-
ence being that M. Duran does not consider it
advisable to finish each bit at a time, but prefers, as
in my method, that all the tones should first be
blocked in very coarsely before any of the finishing
touches are given.
Of course there are many other methods practised
at Paris, but they most of them go on the same
principle of seeking first of all for absolute truth of
tone and colour, and getting this truth in the simplest
and most obvious way.
I have already mentioned the method pursued by
Sir John Millais : that of putting the canvas side
by side with the object, and walking backwards and
forwards between each touch. Now, in many ways
this is an admirable method, and is particularly well
adapted for students, on account of the direct com-
parison that it gives between the picture and the
object painted. But it has serious drawbacks; the
chief of which is that it leads to a certain looseness
and sketchiness of touch, which is certainly not ad-
visable for a student, however charming it may be in
the hands of a master. Every touch that is given by
this method has to be applied by memory, and not by
direct observation, for the painter can only see his
object properly when he is away from the canvas.
He then walks up to his canvas, puts on his touch,
and comes back again to see if it be right. As it is
60 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
generally more or less wrong, it has to be corrected until
it is right. So that the whole process is one of con-
tinual correction, a process which is hardly compatible
with great firmness and precision of drawing. At the
same time, it must always be remembered that if the
next thing to being right is to be wrong with precision,
yet it is distinctly better to be right, whether with
precision or otherwise.
Another drawback is that the process of walking
backwards and forwards is so irksome that the painter
is apt, out of sheer laziness, to stop too long at his
canvas, and to paint his picture from the view he gets
of his object when he is quite close to it a fatal
proceeding, as it is quite impossible to get a good
general view of an object until one is some way off it.
Of course a very resolute painter can avoid this
danger, but human nature is weak, particularly artistic
So far our methods have been very direct that
is, they have aimed at painting things at once as we
see them, without any preliminary preparation beyond
that of a careful outline drawing. But some artists
have considered that it is as well to separate the
difficulties of colour and of light and shade, and to
attack them separately. There are various methods
founded on this principle, the most thorough-going of
which was a good deal practised in England about
thirty years ago. It was called the Murray method,
and consisted in modelling the subject very carefully
in a sort of purplish-grey, called Murray (or mulberry)
colour. When the modelling was complete the colour
PRACTICE. 6 1
was added by thin glazings of transparent pigments.
Of course, the great objection to this method is that
it is impossible to get anything like really accurate
colouring by means of it. No glazings can sufficiently
modify a dark neutral ground to give anything like
the true intensity of hue that is to be found in a great
There is a letter of Sir Joshua Reynolds which
gives a very good account of such a method. He is
describing his own practice in 1770, when he was
forty-seven years old that is, in his prime :
" I am established in my method of painting. The
first and second paintings are with oil or copaiva (for
a medium), the colours being only black, ultramarine,
and white." " The second painting is the same." " The
last painting is with yellow ochre, lake, black, and
ultramarine, and without white, re-touched with a little
white and the other colours."
Of course, in the hands of a genius like Reynolds
a great deal can be done with even an unsatisfactory
method ; but it must be noted that although a fine
colourist, he was not by any means a rich one. It is
also probable that his first painting was very pale, so
that the dulness of his black and ultramarine was
easily conquered by the richer colours with which he
finished his pictures. Much less objection can be
taken to this system if the palette which is used in
the first painting is slightly enriched, so that a sug-
gestion can be given of all the colours of the original.
The picture, in its first stages, will then be a pale and
washed-out version of the scene it represents. In the
62 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
later stages the colour is reinforced with all the
resources of a full palette until the requisite vigour
and richness has been gained.
It would seem as if Titian's practice were of this
kind. In Mr. Hamerton's very interesting and learned
work on the graphic arts, from which I have already
borrowed my account of Reynolds' practice, is to be
found a resume of what Boschini tells us with regard
to Titian's method. This Boschini knew the younger
Palma, whose father had received instruction from
Titian, so it is probable that the tradition handed
down by him is not very wide of the mark. It seems
that Titian painted his pictures at first very solidly,
with a simple palette composed of white, black, red, and
yellow. There was apparently no blue, but black and
white make a bluish-grey, which would be sufficient
to indicate this colour in the first painting.
Boschini speaks of four pencillings which were
done in this way, and then the picture was put aside
for several months. When he took it up again, he
first amended and corrected all the forms. He then
finished very laboriously with continual glazings and
with rubbings of opaque colour, frequently applied
with the finger instead of the brush. In this way he
gained the exquisite subtlety and richness of colour
in which his paintings surpass all others. I shall not
attempt to criticise a method which has produced the
finest paintings that the world has ever seen, but I
certainly think it is too elaborate for a student to
practise. He should aim at the representation of
nature in a rather commonplace and obvious way,
and should keep subtleties of colour and execution
till the student stage is over.
Leonardo appears to have laid in his pictures with
a warm brown, and this also was the practice of
Teniers and the Dutch painters generally. Now, a
warm brown is a very pleasant colour in itself, and
also affords delightful greys when other colours are
thinly scumbled over it, so that paintings produced in
this way are generally agreeable in colour ; but they
certainly do not represent the true variety and rich-
ness of natural colouring. A grey-bro\vn world may
be very harmonious, but the actual world we live in
shows much finer colouring than that. Of course the
brown ground can be modified to any extent in the
subsequent painting ; but in practice it is rather apt
to pervade all pictures painted in this way, and there
is the additional disadvantage that the groundwork of
all oil-paintings is apt to become more conspicuous
with time. That a white ground should shine through
the colours above it a little more than was originally
the case is hardly a drawback, and would certainly
not interfere with the general richness of colour-
ing ; but with any dark ground the case is different.
All oil painting has a tendency to grow darker with
age, and it is obviously unwise to hasten this tendency
by using a dark ground, which becomes more and
more conspicuous every year.
I think it is not necessary to give any further
details regarding different systems of painting. Any
one who is curious in the matter can find in Mrs.
Merrifield's " Treatises on the Arts of Painting/' a
64 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
careful collection of all that is known with regard to
the methods of the old masters, and it is very odd
how little is known about them. What accounts we
have are extremely vague, and mostly contradictory.
Again, Mr. Hamerton has collected some very in-
teresting notes as to the practice of some modern
painters, which can be found in the " Portfolio " for
the years 1875 and 1876, and again re-written and
considerably added to in the work I have already
mentioned, " The Graphic Arts."
In conclusion, I must utter a word of warning as
to taking too literally the accounts that artists give of
their own methods. They always imagine that they
set to work much more systematically than is really
the case. As new difficulties arise they invent new
means to conquer them, and as new difficulties always
are arising their systems are continually being
modified. At the same time, it is difficult to do good
work with a complete absence of system, and there is
little doubt that an adherence to some kind of definite
method does very much to simplify the laborious pro-
cess of learning how to paint.
So far we have confined ourselves to practical matters ;
we will now consider the theoretical principles which
underlie the art of painting. To some people it may
seem strange to put practice before theory ; I can only
allege as my justification, that in so doing I am fol-
lowing the natural order, for no valid theory of any-
thing has ever been made until we have practically
found out a good deal about it Nor is it possible to
thoroughly understand a theory until we are more or
less familiar with the facts on which it is based.
There are other people (amongst them many
artists) who will scout the idea of there being any
theory of painting at all, and who are exceedingly
indignant at any search after scientific principles to
elucidate the hidden ways of art. Fortunately, this
attitude is becoming less common as science in general
is becoming better understood. After all, science is
neither more nor less than knowledge, and there are
few people now-a-days who will maintain that we shall
do anything the better the less we know about it.
In the first part I have thus stated the problem set
before the student: " Every natural object appears to
66 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
us as a sort of pattern of different shades and colours ;
the task of the artist is so to arrange his shades and
colours on his canvas that a similar pattern is pro-
We will now consider this matter a little more
closely. In what does the sense of sight consist ?
Unfortunately, to answer this question, I must
refer, however briefly, to the constitution of the
It is generally held by people who are qualified to
have opinions on the subject, that matter consists of
exceedingly small particles, not close to one another,
but with spaces in between, and that these spaces are
filled by an all-pervading something, called the ether,
which is, perhaps, made up of still smaller particles, or
is, perhaps, structureless. We do not know much
about the ether, but we do know that it can vibrate,
and that vibrations travel through it with extreme
rapidity. It is these vibrations (or, rather, some oi
them) that constitute what we call light. Now, our
eyes are an apparatus which is so arranged as to be
affected by these vibrations : that is to say, they set
up some kind of agitation in the nerves which end in
the retina, and when this agitation reaches a certain
portion of the brain a sensation is excited which we
It has been said that the ether fills up the spaces
between the particles of matter; it is the motion of
these particles that sets up the vibrations in the ether.
These particles are never actually at rest, but are
always vibrating to and fro. When anything is
hot we imagine that the particles are vibrating very
rapidly ; waves of corresponding rapidity are trans-
mitted through the ether, and when these waves reach
our skin they produce that state of our nerves that
we call the sensation of heat.
When the rapidity is very great the ether vibra-
tions are capable of exciting the nerves of the retina ;
we then have the sensation of light. As regards the
vibrations of the ether, light and heat are essentially
the same ; the difference lies in the apparatus that
perceives them. It is only waves within certain defi-
nite limits of rapidity that excite the retina, and even
within these limits the excitement is different for
different degrees of rapidity. The slowest visible
waves excite the sensation of red, the fastest visible
waves excite that of violet, and the colours generally
follow the degrees of rapidity in this order : Red,
orange, yellow, green, blue, violet.
It is by means of this different perception of the
different luminous waves that we are enabled to dis-
tinguish colours. Later on I may be able to explain,
to a certain extent, the mechanism by which colour is
perceived, but the bare facts are enough for the
To return to the ether waves. When these are
set in motion by a body vibrating very quickly, or, as
we generally call it, a self-luminous body, they travel
with extreme rapidity in a perfectly straight line
until they meet some other body. If this body be
transparent, they pursue their course through it, either
in the same straight line or with a certain amount of
68 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
deviation, in which latter case they are said to be
refracted ; if, on the other hand, the body be opaque,
some of them rebound from it, or, as we say, are re-
flected from its surface. If the surface be smooth,
they are reflected in a definite direction; if the surface
be rough, they are reflected in all directions. It is
by means of these reflected rays that we see those
objects that are not self-luminous. Even transparent
objects reflect some rays, and it is by these reflected
rays that they are seen. In all cases there are some
rays which are neither reflected nor refracted, but are
It is very instructive to notice the totally different
effects produced by the same rays on the nerves of
touch and on those of vision. I say the same rays,
as, although a good many of the heat rays are in-
visible, yet all the visible rays are, to a certain extent,
heating, and some of them, at least, can be recognised
as hot by the skin, provided they are concentrated
upon it sufficiently.
The difference depends on two causes. In the
first place, the optic nerve, however stimulated, gives
rise to a totally different sensation to that given by
the nerves of touch. The optic nerve can be excited
in many ways: by a blow, by a galvanic current, by a
rush of blood in its own blood-vessels, or by ether
waves of a certain rapidity; but whatever the means
employed, any excitement of the optic nerve gives
rise in the sensorium to the sensation of light. It
can only speak one language, and that language is
quite different from the one spoken by the nerves of
touch. In the second place, there is a special and
very delicate apparatus by which the optic nerve is
enabled to distinguish between ether waves which
differ in rapidity, in intensity, or even in direction.
There is nothing in the skin which is at all equivalent
to this special apparatus, so that the messages given
by the skin nerves are very vague and indefinite in
comparison with those given by the retina.
It may be as well to give some slight description of
The best way of making it intelligible is to com-
pare it to some instrument which is well known, and
of which the mechanism can be readily investigated.
We all know what a photographic camera is like : it
consists essentially of a dark box with a lens or group
of lenses at one end of it, which throws an inverted
image of the scene in front of it on to a ground-glass
screen, which closes the box at the other end. It is
not easy to explain the action of a lens without the
aid of diagrams, but it may be sufficient to say that
the convex lens, which is the one that is used in a
camera, has the property of making all rays that
strike on it from a point outside it converge again at
a certain distance to a similar point on the other side
of it. The result of this is that every point of the
natural object to which the camera is turned is repro-
duced in a similar point on the ground-glass screen,
and as the relative position of all these points remains
unchanged, the image on the screen, although upside
down, is a faithful representation of the object outside
that is, if the screen be at the proper distance from
7O A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
the lens ; at any other distance the image appears
blurred. This proper distance is obtained by moving
the lens backwards and forwards until the image on
the screen appears sharp and clear. The eye is merely
a kind of camera, having an arrangement of lenses,
which throws an image of the scene outside it on to
a sort of screen, called the retina. It also has a
mechanism by which sharpness of focus is obtained,
but by different means from those employed in the
photographic camera. Instead of altering the distance
between the lens and the screen, the actual shape of
the principal lens is altered, becoming more convex
for objects near the eye, and less convex for distant
objects. The screen, or retina, that receives the image
is formed by the ends of the various fibres of the
optic nerve. These fibres end quite differently from
the fibres of any other nerve ; they seem to spread out
into a uniform layer, composed of minute bodies called
the rods and cones names which roughly describe
their appearance. This layer of minute structures
forms the essential part of the retina, and it so far
answers to the ground-glass plate of the photographic
camera that a minute inverted picture of the scene in
front of the eye is thrown upon it by the arrangement
of lenses with which the eye is provided. The way in
which this picture is perceived by the brain remains a
mystery, for indeed the transition from the outside
world to our own sensations is, in every case, in-
explicable ; but we must take it roughly that the brain
receives a mental picture, which is so far equivalent
to the picture on the retina that it is enabled to infer
from it the proper position and luminosity of the
objects outside the eye.
But here we are confronted by a special difficulty :
we not only see that one object occupies a different
position in the field of vision from others, and that it
differs from others in intensity of illumination, but it
also differs from them in quite another way ; that
is, in colour.
Now, this third difference is particularly puzzling,
for there is nothing, so far as we know, in the rays
of light to account for it.
These rays differ amongst themselves solely in
energy (amplitude of swing) and in rapidity of vibra-
tion : that is to say, the rays which excite the
sensation of green are just the same as those that
excite the sensation of red, except that they are
vibrating a little more rapidly. Now, the sensation of
red is so entirely different from the sensation of green
that we should expect some corresponding difference
in the ether waves that cause these sensations. What
adds to the difficulty is that colours have various
peculiarities, to which, again, nothing seems to answer
in the physical constitution of light ; for instance,
three of the colours, such as red, green and violet,
appear to be simple, whilst others, such as yellow,
purple and grey, are compounds of two or more of
these simple colours. Again, there are some people
(called colour-blind) who can see the forms of objects
perfectly and some of their colours, but who are
insensible to other of the colours generally to red.
In fact, the whole system of colour sensation seems to
/2 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
be very complicated, whilst the differences in the
ether waves are very simple.
This puzzle is so difficult to solve that Helm-
holtz (the greatest living authority on the subject)
acknowledges that he was unable to frame any theory
that would in the least account for it, until he met
with an entirely satisfactory explanation in the works
of Thomas Young, an Englishman, who flourished at
the beginning of this century, and to whom is due
the glory of having firmly established the undulatory
theory of light.
Helmholtz remarks that he was one of the keenest
intellects that ever lived, but he had the misfortune to
be too much in advance of his contemporaries, so
that many of his finest discoveries lay buried in the
archives of the Royal Society until they were labori-
ously re-discovered by a younger generation. Amongst
other causes that contributed to the general neglect
with which the labours of this great man were treated
in his own time must be reckoned a savage and, un-
fortunately, successful onslaught by Henry Brougham,
who afterwards became Lord Chancellor a man of
very inferior capacity to Young, but of infinitely
The theory of colour in particular had sunk into
profound oblivion, until Helmholtz came across it in
the course of his omnivorous reading, and was at once
struck with the completeness of the solution that it
gave to the riddle that had puzzled him so long.
Having lent it the authority of his great name (fortu-
nately undimmed by the strictures of any German
chancellor), it is now almost universally accepted by
the scientific world.
As this theory is of great importance to the artist,
I will do my best to expound it. Since the time -of
Newton it has always been held that there are only
three simple or primary colours, and that all the
others are merely mixtures of these simple colours.
According to Newton, the three primary colours are
red, yellow, and blue. He seems to have arrived at
this result chiefly by experiments on the mixture of
pigments. But unfortunately, the mixture of pig-
ments is a very different thing from the mixture of
light of different colours. There are many ways of
producing a true mixture of coloured lights ; perhaps
the simplest is by using what is called a colour top.
We slip on to an ordinary top little discs of card-
board. By painting half the disc of one colour and
the other half of another, and then making it spin
round, we see nothing but an uniform tint, which is
the true mixture of the two colours. If we try a
mixture of blue and yellow in this way, we get not
green, but a kind of grey. By experiments conducted
in this and similar ways we have now found out that
the true primaries are red, green, and violet, by a
mixture of which all the other colours can be pro-
duced. Yellow is formed by a combination of red
and green, blue by a combination of green and violet,
and purple by a combination of violet and red. These
are the so-called secondary colours. By mixing all
three primaries together in certain proportions we get
white or grey. By mixing the three primaries in
74 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
other proportions, we get the so-called tertiaries,
such as russet, olive, &c.
It may startle those who are only accustomed to
the mixture of pigments to hear that blue and yellow
light do not produce green, but grey or white, accord-
ing to the intensity of the illumination. That this is
so can be readily proved by the experiment mentioned
above and by many others. But why do blue and
yellow paint produce green ? To answer this we
must explain how it is that pigments produce their
different colour- effects they do so by absorbing
certain colours from the white light that reaches them,
whilst the colours that remain unabsorbed are reflected
back to the eye, and produce the special colour-effect
of the pigment.
The question of the mixture of pigments is very
much complicated by the fact that none of the pig-
ments in use represent any pure colour. When
examined by the spectroscope they are found to
reflect light of many different colours, their whole
effect being the average of these different hues. Now,
take the case of a blue pigment such as cobalt. The
blue paint absorbs most of the red, orange and yellow
waves, reflecting back to the eye the green, blue, and
violet, so that the result is a general impression of
blue. Again, take a yellow pigment, which absorbs
the blue and violet waves, reflecting back the red,
yellow, and green. A mixture of these two will
absorb, more or less, every colour except green, which
will be, therefore, the dominant tint of the mixture.
It must here be remarked that colours differ from
one another in three quite distinct ways. Firstly, in
tint i.e., all shades and varieties of red are different
from all shades and varieties of green. Secondly, in
luminosity a light red is different from a dark red.
Thirdly, in what is called saturation that .is, one red
can be much more red than another, quite inde-
pendently of its luminosity. When we speak of a
full, rich, intense tint, we mean what, in scientific
language, is called a saturated colour. So that to
properly define a colour, we must bear these three
qualities in mind. Take any given colour, such as
the hue of a primrose. In the first place it is yellow,
in the second place it is light, in the third place it is
not very saturated : that is, the hue is a light yellow of
but slight intensity.
It will be seen from all this that the whole system
of colour, as we perceive it, is a very complicated
affair ; but, as I have already pointed out, there are
no such complicated differences in the ether waves,
which undoubtedly give rise to the sensations of
colour. They only differ in rapidity and in intensity.
There is absolutely nothing that corresponds to the
difference between the primaries and the secondaries.
Nor can we understand, from a consideration of the
properties of the ether waves, how it is that one
colour should differ from another not only in degree,
but absolutely in kind. The cause of these complica-
tions must be sought for, not in the physical proper-
ties of light itself, but in the instrument which
perceives it. In the same way that ether waves
which are physically identical give rise to the quite
76 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
different sensations of heat or light, according as they
stimulate the skin nerves or the optic nerve so are
also the waves which strike the retina perceived in dif-
ferent ways, according to the different structure of the
apparatus which they affect. Young's theory is briefly
this : that the retina is supplied with three different
kinds of nerve-fibres. The one kind is chiefly stimu-
lated by the longer light waves, and, when stimulated,
gives rise to the sensation of red ; another responds
to the light waves of middling length, and gives rise
to the sensation of green ; the third responds to the
shortest visible waves, and gives rise to the sensation
We have said that each kind is chiefly stimulated
by the shock of waves of a certain length, but they
also respond in a lesser degree to all the visible
waves. For instance, the red-seeing fibres are chiefly
excited by the longest visible waves, but they also
respond somewhat to the shorter ones, whilst the
green-seeing fibres not only respond to the waves of
middling length, but are also slightly affected by the
longer and shorter waves. So that waves of an inter-
mediate length can excite equally two sets of nerves.
When two sets of nerves are excited, either by
these intermediate waves or by a mixture of waves of
different lengths, one of the secondary or mixed
colours is perceived. When all three are equally
excited, we have the sensation of white or grey,
according to the intensity of the excitement. When
they are unequally excited, we perceive one of the
Simple as this theory is, it is, nevertheless, capable
of explaining most of the puzzling anomalies of colour
For instance, take the curious defect called colour-
blindness. A colour-blind man has, apparently, per-
fect vision for form, and light and shade ; he can also
distinguish some colours quite correctly, whereas
others he mixes up in the most hopeless manner. As
a general rule, the reds are the stumbling-block of the
colour-blind. A full rich scarlet appears to them
almost black, as is evidenced by the well-known story
of the Scotch minister, who selected a brilliant scarlet
cloth for his coat under the impression that it was a
nice quiet colour. Such people can see blues, greens,
and violets very well, but a bluish - green generally
appears to them nearly colourless. So that they
cannot distinguish between the leaves and the flower
of a scarlet geranium, nor between the red and green
lights used on railways which latter is a matter of
considerable practical importance. The colour of
these objects would appear to them the same ; they
would only differ in luminosity.
Young's theory gives a very complete explanation
of these peculiarities. We have only to suppose that
the particular nerve-fibres which respond to the stimu-
lus of the longer waves are absent or paralysed, and
we at once have a sufficient cause for the non-percep-
tion of red. The green and violet-seeing fibres would be
in full operation, and these would be amply sufficient
for the perception of form, and light and shade, ex-
cept that all red objects would appear too dark and
78 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
quite colourless. If the green and violet-seeing fibres
were simultaneously excited, as they would be by
light of a green-blue tinge, the sensation of white or
grey would be produced, exactly as in the normal
eye the sensation of white is produced by the simul-
taneous excitement of all three sets of fibres.
This is the ordinary form of colour-blindness. In
some rare cases one of the other sets of nerves seems
to be deficient, thus giving additional confirmation to
It will be observed that as light of any definite
wave-length not only excites its own proper set of
nerves, but also to a much less degree the other two
sets, it follows that all our colour sensations must be
a little mixed : that is, we cannot see red without some
slight admixture of green and violet, nor can we see
green without- some slight admixture of red and
violet, and so on. That is, under ordinary circum-
stances we never get a quite pure colour-sensation.
Here, again, the theory is strikingly confirmed ; but to
show in what way, we must refer to a very curious set
of phenomena which we have not yet touched upon.
Nerves, like muscles, are easily fatigued ; the stronger
the stimulus the greater the subsequent exhaustion.
To this rule the nerves of the eye are no exception.
After we have been out of doors in strong sunshine
for some little time, the retina loses all power of re-
sponding to a moderate amount of light, so that it
from the sunlight we step into a dark, feebly-lighted
room at first we can see nothing. The retina is too
tired to respond to a feeble stimulus, but in a very
short time it recovers from its fatigue, and every
object in the dark room becomes visible. But not
only can the whole retina become fatigued, separate
parts of it can also be temporarily paralysed. If we
look at some small light object on a dark ground for
some time, without letting the gaze wander, and then
look away on to some grey, moderately lighted
expanse, we shall see an image of the former
scene, with the light and shade reversed that is,
the light object will appear dark, whereas the dark
background will appear light, like a photographic
The explanation of this appearance lies entirely in
local fatigue of the retina ; the part which received
the image of the bright object has been so worn out
by the over-stimulus that it cannot respond to the
moderate light received from the grey expanse at
which it is now looking, so that a dark spot is per-
ceived corresponding in shape and area to the
fatigued part of the retina. The rest of the retina,
however, has been rested by looking at the dark back-
ground, so that when the gaze is turned away the
moderate light it now receives is sufficient to excite it
strongly. It is obvious that for the success of this
experiment it is necessary that the eye should be
steadily fixed upon the bright object, otherwise if the
gaze be allowed to wander, successive portions of the
retina will be fatigued in turn. It is not advisable
that the light object should be too bright, white paper
is quite bright enough. A brighter object produces
so much excitement on the retina that a different
80 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
series of effects are produced ; besides, too great a
stimulus can be very injurious.
But not only can separate portions of the retina
be excited, but also separate nerve-elements, so that
it is quite possible to fatigue the red-seeing nerves
(for instance) without the "others.
If we look for some time fixedly at a bright red
object and then transfer our gaze to a piece of grey
paper we shall see a blue-green image of the object.
The explanation of this is that the red-seeing nerves
of one part of the retina have been temporarily para-
lysed by fatigue, so that the light coming from the
grey paper, which, under ordinary circumstances,
would stimulate equally all three sets of nerves, has a
much greater effect on the green and violet-seeing
fibres than on the others, so that the predominant
perception in this part of the retina is of a greenish-
This suggests to us a means by which we can see
colours in a much purer state than we can ever do
under ordinary conditions. Our ordinary perception
of the strongest red is mixed with sensations of green
and violet chiefly of green, as the longest waves
have the least effect upon the violet-seeing nerves.
If we can in any way paralyse these two sets of
nerves, we shall be able to have an almost pure
sensation of red.
To achieve this object we look at that portion of
a solar spectrum where the green fades into the blue.
After gazing at it steadily for some time we turn
our gaze to the red end of the spectrum, and perceive
THEORY. 8 1
a red such as we have never seen before, for it is now,
for the first time, unmixed with green and violet.
All these curious phenomena and many others
are perfectly explained by the Young theory of
colour, and no other theory gives anything like a
rational explanation of them ; so we need not scruple
to adopt it as true, at any rate in its main outlines,
although anatomical research has not as yet confirmed
its fundamental assumption that of the three nerve-
fibres. But even here some slight confirmation is not
wanting, for in reptiles and birds, though not in
mammals, some traces have been found of the requi-
site differences in the retinal elements.
I trust that in this brief sketch I have given some
slight idea of this beautiful theory. I must refer
those who would like to make a further acquaintance
with it either to Helmholtz's great work, the " Physio-
logische Optik," or, if they are unacquainted with
German, to two papers in his popular scientific
lectures, which have all been translated into English.
There is also an excellent work on the subject in the
International Scientific Series, " Modern Chromatics,"
by Professor Rood.
Hitherto we have been concerned with the appara-
tus which perceives colour, we will now consider the
question in its more general aspect that is, the differ-
ences in natural objects which make them appear to
us of different colours. These differences are solely
differences of wave-length. Objects which send to
us ether waves of a certain length appear to us red,
others which send shorter waves appear to us green,
82 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
and so on. If an object send to us, as is nearly
always the case, a number of waves of different
lengths, then the colour-sensation depends on the
average effect produced by all the different waves.
Our usual source of light (except in London) is
the sun. Sun-light may be said, roughly speaking,
to be composed of all the visible waves in such pro-
portions that it produces the sensation of white.
Ordinary daylight, when direct sunlight is not
visible, is simply sunlight reflected either from the
minute water-globules which constitute clouds, or
else from the still more minute particles which we
perceive as the blue sky. It also produces the general
sensation of white, although usually a white that is
colder or more inclined to blue than sunlight. The
sun's light, or this reflected daylight, or the light
of any self-luminous body, is also reflected from
all natural objects, and it is in this way that we see
them. But as a general rule it is not reflected in the
same proportions in which it is received. Nearly all
coloured objects owe their colours to the fact that
they only reflect some of the waves of light, absorbing
or transmitting the others. So that the selected
waves that are reflected from them do not excite the
three nerve- elements equally, and, as we have seen,
any unequal excitation of the retinal elements gives
rise to the sensation of colour. Our artists' pigments
are bodies which have this property of absorbing some
of the rays of light and reflecting others. Our white
paint absorbs very few rays and absorbs these equally,
so that light is reflected from it practically unchanged.
Our red pigment absorbs many more rays, chiefly of
the shorter kind, so that the ones it reflects are mostly
the longer ones. Our blues, on the other hand,
absorb mostly the longer waves, and so on. A black
pigment is one of great absorbent power, so that
very few rays are reflected from it.
We are now in a position to understand how it is
that an arrangement of differently-coloured pigments
on a canvas can so thoroughly represent a natural
scene. To our eyes a natural scene is nothing more
than a pattern of colours produced by the varying
absorption and illumination of natural objects. Our
painted canvas can give just the same absorption of
colours, and can represent the varying illumination by
pigments which reflect more or less light to the eye.
But here comes a difficulty. Can it represent the
same intensity of light and shade that the natural
scene gives ? In many instances it certainly cannot.
Let us take the case of a picture representing a sunlit
landscape. We will suppose it hangs on the wall of
a room. It is obvious that its highest light is only
white paint illuminated by the moderate light that
enters an ordinary room. This must surely be many
times darker than, say, a white stone, on which the
sunlight falls in the real landscape and yet it cer-
tainly looks like sunlight. To bring out the difficulty
more clearly, we will suppose that there hangs side
by side with this picture another representing a moon-
In this also a white object would be represented
by white paint, with perhaps a slightly bluish tinge.
84 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
At any rate, the two white objects in the two pictures
would be represented as of almost equal luminosity,
and yet we know that sunlight is many times more
powerful than moonlight. Indeed, it is much more
so than we think. According to Wollaston, who
made direct photometrical observations, sunlight is
about 800,000 times stronger than moonlight. And
yet in our pictures we paint them almost of equal
strength ! The very surprise with which we hear of
this enormous difference puts us on the track of the
solution of the puzzle. As a matter of fact, we are in
the habit of disregarding differences of total illumina-
tion. What is important to us is to know the con-
stant unvarying qualities of bodies, not their accidental
differences which vary from one moment to another.
To distinguish one object from another it is very
important to know their relative colours and lumin-
osities ; that is, that under any illumination a red
object is redder than a blue one, and a white object is
lighter than a black one. This tells us something of
importance, and enables us to recognise different
bodies under all sorts of circumstances ; but that a
sheet of white paper is so many thousand times
lighter in sunlight than in moonlight, is of no import-
ance to us whatever under ordinary circumstances, so
we habitually disregard it. And this is not only a
matter of habit, but it is a necessary consequence of
the structure of our eyes.
As we have said, the retina gets very easily
fatigued, and in this state only responds to stimuli of
great intensity; whereas in a condition of rest it is
easily excited by very faint stimuli. For instance,
we go out of doors into the full sunlight. At first
everything seems one blinding glare, but in a very
short time the retina gets dulled, and is no more con-
scious of any excess of light. The lights are no
longer blinding, and the shadows seem strong and
dark, although the shadows of a sunlit landscape are
generally much brighter than any light inside a room,
unless the sunlight enters it. If we now leave the
sunshine and go into some dimly-lighted room, a con-
trary effect is produced, to which we have already
alluded. At first the tired retina refuses to respond
to the feeble stimuli given by the objects in the room,
and everything seems dark ; but in a very short time
the retina recovers, and any light object shines out
with an intensity that seems quite brilliant to the
rested eye. So that not only do we disregard great
differences of illumination as being unimportant to
us, but also the structure of our eye prevents us from
truly perceiving them.
We will now go back to our two landscapes. The
white in the sunny picture strikes upon an eye that
has not been dulled by exposure to the sunlight, so
that its want of real illumination is compensated by
the increased acuteness of the retina. But this acute-
ness is not nearly so great as it would be if the eye
had only been exposed to the much feebler light of
the moon. So that the moonlit landscape, striking
upon a comparatively inert eye, does hardly seem
brighter than the actual scene would seem to the
highly sensitive eye, that would naturally behold it.
86 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
But if both the landscapes are equally luminous,
how is it that we can see at once that one is meant
for moonlight and the other for sunlight ?
The answer to this is very interesting.
In the first place it is only the brightest objects of
both that we paint with our strongest light. In the
sunny landscape we paint all the objects that are
moderately illuminated almost as bright as the highest
light, reserving our darks only for the few really deep
shadows. In the other it is only the very brightest
objects that we paint bright at all. The moderately
illuminated ones are all merged in the shadows. And
this corresponds to a real difference in our perceptions
of intense and slight illuminations. In a sunlit scene
all objects that are not actually in shadow seem
almost equally bright. In a moonlit scene all objects,
except the brightest, seem almost equally dark.
There is another difference of almost equal import-
ance. The general colour of the sunny landscape will
be warm that is, inclined to the reds and yellows
whereas the general colour of the other will be cold
that is, inclined towards blue and violet and this will
be the case even when they represent the same scene.
The difference of colour will, at once, suggest the
difference of illumination. And yet moonlight is
merely reflected sunlight. How can we account for
its looking so much colder ?
Here we must have recourse to Young's theory.
It would seem that the three sets of nerves do not re-
spond quite equally to light of different intensities.
That is, white light of great intensity has most effect
on the red-seeing nerves and least on the violet-seeing
ones, so that sunlight appears to us of a slightly orange
tone, whereas white light of feeble intensity has most
effect on the violet-seeing nerves and least on the red,
so that moonlight, although it sends to us light of the
same average wave-length as sunlight, appears to us
of a bluish tinge.
There is a simple experiment which brings this
out clearly : If we take two pieces of paper, and
colour one of them red and the other blue, so that in
a room they appear of the same brightness, and then
take them out into the sunlight, the red will appear
lighter than the other. By moonlight the blue will
appear much lighter than the red.
It is chiefly by paying attention to these two prin-
ciples that our two landscapes look right in spite of
their falsity of illumination.
The latter principle will explain how it is that a
landscape, which is painted out of doors, is apt to
look cold when it is brought indoors. It should
always be recollected that, other things being equal,
the stronger the illumination the warmer the picture
There is a very important practical lesson which
can be drawn from the ready adjustment of the retina
to different degrees of illumination. It is well known
that one of the great difficulties in painting is to get
breadth (as it is called) ; that is, to avoid bringing out
too clearly unimportant details. As we say, we see
too much. We have to learn not to paint all we see.
It is not generally known that the cause of this
88 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
difficulty is not so much mental as physical. We really
do see more when we look for some time at each
separate detail than when we look at the scene as a
whole, and this is not so much a result of increased
attention as of adjustment of the retina to the par-
ticular degree of light given out by each separate part
of the scene. For instance, we are looking at a sunlit
landscape, in the foreground of which is a white stone,
which is the brightest object of the scene. When we
look at the view as a whole, the stone merely appears
to us as a mass of dazzling white ; but if we fix our
gaze upon the stone, in a very short time it ceases to
dazzle us, and we are able to see all sorts of little
markings and varieties of tint upon it. The retina has
become dulled to just the proper degree at which it
can best see the stone. But should the painter repre-
sent it with all these markings ? Certainly not, for
his object is to represent the scene as it appears to a
casual spectator that is, he must paint his stone as he
sees it when he first glances at it, not as it appears
when he has been gazing at it for some time. Again,
if he have in the same landscape to paint a log of
wood lying in the shade: when he looks at it with
his eye dimmed with the general sunlight it appears
simply a brown mass, but, after gazing at the shade
for some little time (as he will have to do if he wish
to paint it), his eye will become rested, and will see all
sorts of detail in the log, which he must resolutely
refuse to paint.
This constitutes a very real difficulty, for it
obliges us to run counter to the most wholesome
instinct that an artist can have viz., to paint what
he sees. It applies also, though in a less degree, to
objects painted in a studio light. The best practical
way to get over the difficulty is never to keep the
eyes fixed for long on the detail that one is painting,
but to continually look away and endeavour to get a
true idea of the scene as a whole.
We are now in a better position to examine the
question of how far a picture can truthfully represent
a natural scene. Even from the slight sketch I have
given of the theory of vision, it is abundantly evident
that in all essentials the impression received on the
retina from a picture can be identical with the im-
pression received from the scene that it depicts.
Here, however, the question suggests itself, how is
it that we know at once the difference between a
picture and the reality ? I have little doubt that, as
a rule, we know a picture to be a picture, because it is
hanging up on a wall or standing on an easel, or, at
any rate, visibly disconnected from the scene around
it. Indeed, under certain circumstances, it can very
well be mistaken for the reality.
If a glimpse be caught of a portrait in a possible
place for a person to be in, it can very well be taken
(at any rate, at first sight) for a living being. This
especially holds good in the case of a portrait seen in
a looking - glass, and particularly if only a small
piece of it be seen, for in a looking-glass we are
accustomed to see a bit of a person cut off from all
There is a story that Philip IV. of Spain came
90 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
into the studio of Velasquez, and seeing there a
portrait of a certain admiral, believed it to be the
admiral himself, and rated him soundly for being at
Madrid at a time when his duties were far away. Of
course this story may be untrue, especially as it is a
matter of history, but it is not in any way im-
Again, I recollect noticing myself that in the
celebrated panorama of the Siege of Paris, exhibited
in the Champs Elysees, that it was very difficult to
see where the earthworks, which were actually built
up round the spectator, and on which real objects
were strewn about, merged into the painted back-
ground. In one place there were two cannons, side
by side one was real and the other was painted
and, at first sight, both looked equally real.
But we must not carry this too far ; the possibility
-of actual deception only exists in the case of large
pictures seen at a considerable distance. When
pictures are looked at more closely there is a definite
discrepancy between them and solid objects which
is quite sufficient to enable us at once to distinguish
them from any real scene. But even this difference
does not exist for people who have only one eye.
It is quite obvious that in viewing solid objects
we get slightly different views of them with each eye.
And yet, unless under exceptional circumstances
(such as an extra glass of wine or two at dinner), we
never see these two views, but have a single impres-
sion of the scene. Now, it is difficult to understand
how two different views can be so blended as to make
a single picture. The way the eyes get over the
difficulty is this : They select some particular part
of the scene in front of them, and turn towards it in
such a way that it is thrown on precisely the same
spot in both retinas the spot where the acutest vision
resides. In this way the brain receives a precisely
similar message about this part of the scene, and it is
easy to understand that these two identical messages
are perceived as one and the same ; but all the rest
of the scene is slightly different in each eye. How is
it that this difference is not perceived ? The answer
is simply that we do not pay any attention to
it. We see the rest of the scene double, but our atten-
tion is so much fixed on the one part of it that we
see single, that we merely get a general impression of
the rest. As a matter of fact, the act of seeing con-
sists in making our eyes converge with great rapidity,
first on one part and then on another of the scene we
are looking at, so that we see distinctly every detail
in turn. It is in this way that we get a distinct
picture of the whole scene.
It is a very curious fact that although we are
continually seeing these double images, yet we never
know that we see them until our attention is specially
called to them, and even then we are made aware of
them with difficulty which is another proof of the
extent to which we disregard all that is unimportant
to us in the act of seeing.
The best way to perceive these double images is
to hold up a finger about a foot in front of the nose,
and then to look at a candle some little way off.
92 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
When we look at the candle we distinctly see two
fingers. When we look at the fingers we see two
Now, when we look at a picture, nothing of this
kind takes place. If we fix our gaze on an object in
the foreground of the picture we do not see the back-
ground double, and vice versd, as we should do in the
real scene. Nor do we see two different views of the
same object in fact, the image of the whole picture
is practically identical for the two eyes ; and this is
quite enough to prevent our taking it for a real scene
unless it be some way off, for at a certain distance,
even in a' real scene, the image in each eye is practi-
But there is more than this in the matter. In
order to make the two eyes converge on any given
point, we have to exert the muscles that move the eye.
This convergence is effected by a little muscle at the
inner corner of each eye which rolls the eye towards
the nose. When we make the eyes converge on near
objects we obviously have to exert these muscles
more than when they converge on distant ones, and
the varying sensation of this muscular strain is un-
doubtedly important in making us aware of the
relative distances of different objects. Of course this
method of discrimination fails in the case of pictures.
Every part of a picture is, roughly speaking, at
the same distance from the eyes, so the strain of con-
vergence is the same whether we look at the fore-
ground or at the distance. But this also does not
affect pictures seen some way off, for the difference of
convergence required for an object thirty feet off and
one a thousand miles away is practically imper-
Even in the case of pictures seen closely, these
discrepancies are very small, certainly not great
enough to prevent a picture being optically almost
identical with its subject, although they are sufficient
to destroy any possible illusion on the part of the
spectator. How small the discrepancies are may be
readily seen from the fact that they do not affect one-
eyed people. But there are other slight differences
which also apply to their case, and which we will
mention for the sake of completeness, although they
are of no practical consequence to the painter.
Besides the larger movements of convergence
which are required when we look from a distant to a
near object, there is the much smaller movement of
accommodation, as it is called, by which the principal
lens of each eye is made more convex in order to
bring the nearer object to a sharp focus on the retina.
In fact, with all people of good sight, the shape of the
lens is continually changing with the varying distance
of the object looked at, and this change of shape is
produced by a muscular effort ; but we are so little
conscious of this effort, and it seems to play so small
a part in our recognition of different distances, that it
may be dismissed as unimportant to our present pur-
pose. Of course in looking at a picture this adjust-
ment is not required, but it is very improbable that we
are conscious of the difference.
Again, there is the discrepancy in the illumination
94 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
of a picture as compared with that of the real scene,
but we have already shown that even in extreme cases
the discrepancy is unimportant, though sufficient to
prevent any actual illusion, and in many cases (such
as pictures which are supposed to represent a quiet
indoor light) it hardly exists.
There is one other reason why we so seldom take
a picture for a reality which does not affect the actual
truthfulness of the representation. When we move
about in front of a real scene, the different objects
which compose it take up different positions with
regard to one another. The whole scene changes as
we change our point of view. We have an extreme
instance of this when we look out of the window of a
rapidly moving train. The near objects seem flying
past us in a direction contrary to our motion, whilst
the distance in contrast to them seems to be moving
with us. Now, any movement, however small, pro-
duces this effect to a certain extent. But when we
shift our position in front of a picture, nothing of the
kind takes place. The picture can become fore-
shortened as a whole that is, all the objects repre-
sented in it may seem a little narrower in proportion
to their height but they do not change their relative
positions. If an object is fronting us in the picture it
will remain fronting us, however much we move to
one side. If an object is partly behind another in
the picture we cannot see more of it, however much
we peer round the corner.
These considerations may, perhaps, explain a very
simple mystery, that has cast an undeserved glamour
round the art of the portrait-painter. I have often
heard it remarked (sometimes in a tone of awe) of
such and such a portrait, that the eyes of it follow
you all over the room.
A very little consideration will show that if the
eyes in a portrait look at the spectator when he is in
front of it, they must continue to look straight at him,
however much he may change his position. No one
expects to find that a portrait, which is full face in
one position, becomes three-quarter face in another,
and yet people are surprised to find that the eyes
follow the same rule.
As I have remarked, this discrepancy, although
generally sufficient to show the unreality of a picture
(as few people look at anything long without changing
their positions), cannot be said to militate against the
possible truthfulness of a picture, which is always
supposed to be looked at from one point of view.
This, I think, exhausts the list of necessary dis-
crepancies between pictures and the scenes that they
represent. The distinctions are, obviously, of no
great importance, and certainly cannot in any way
justify the theory that it is impossible to give anything
like a true representation of nature. It is certainly
difficult to produce an actual illusion, but then the
smallest crack or flaw in the surface of a looking-
glass is sufficient to tell us that we are looking on a
reflecting surface and not on a real scene ; but this
would surely not prevent the reflection from being
absolutely like the image which produces it
Similar considerations apply in the case of a
96 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
picture, the essential truth of which is not in the least
affected by the trifling peculiarities which distinguish
from the reality. So that we can take it broadly
that there is nothing to prevent our picture giving to
the eye essentially the same impression that an actual
I have been obliged to insist on this rather
strongly, as a great deal of nonsense has been talked
about the impossibility of reproducing nature; from
which it has been deduced that the true function of
the artist is to translate natural objects into something
totally different, it being a hopeless task to endeavour
to represent them faithfully. Now, of course, such
a translation may be very interesting, especially to
those who are chiefly concerned in watching the work-
ings of artists' minds, but a direct and faithful repre-
sentation is perfectly possible, and should, to my
judgment, be the one thing to be aimed at by the
But although this representation is possible, it is
by no means easy, and it is rather puzzling to explain
in what the difficulty consists.
To state again the problem that is before the
student: Whenever we look at a scene we have a
patchwork of forms and colours floating before our
eyes, and this is in fact the scene. We have to place
on canvas similar patches similar in form, position,
and intensity. That is all. Now, why is it so diffi-
cult ? The crux of the matter lies in this : that we
have learnt to see in nature so much more than this
patchwork of forms and colours which is all that is
impressed on the retina. We ourselves put into a
scene much more than we actually get from it. We
say that we see that an object is solid, that it is hard,
that it is a long way off, &c. Now, we see none of
these things ; we only infer them.
Our knowledge of form and distance is gained
chiefly by touch. We cannot possibly tell the real
shape of objects merely by looking at them, as the
appearance of them varies with every new point of
view that we take up. It is by the association of
certain visual images with certain definite sensations
of touch that we are enabled to have an idea of what
we call the form of a thing that is, of the permanent
characters which distinguish it from other things, and
of which the continually varying visual images are
This is, in fact, what we want to get out of vision.
We want definite information as to the more or less
permanent characters of things that surround us. We
make use of our visual impressions for this purpose,
but pay no attention to what they are like in them-
selves. It is very much what happens when we hear
a person talk : we concern ourselves not at all with the
separate sounds as they reach our ear; we merely use
them to gain a knowledge of what is passing in
another man's mind a subject that is quite out of the
domain of acoustics.
Here we have the great difficulty : we persistently
use our eyes for entirely different purposes to those
pursued by the artist, until at last we lose our faculty
of seeing pure and simple, and the artist has to
98 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
struggle all his life to disentangle his vision from all
the things his intellect has put into it, and never quite
succeeds at the best.
That is the problem. To see the world as a new-
born infant sees it an object so difficult of attain-
ment that we have to seek for help wherever we can
A very remarkable instance of the difficulty we
have in seeing things as they really appear, and
also of the way that theory can help us out of these
difficulties, is afforded by aerial perspective.
If we put aside the stereoscopic effect of the com-
bined use of both our eyes, we judge of distance in
two quite different ways. In the first place, objects
diminish in size the further off they are ; in the
second place, they alter in colour and in light and
shade. These effects can be, to a certain extent, re-
duced to rule, the former kind being the subject of
ordinary perspective and the latter of aerial perspec-
tive. Now, these rules are particularly valuable to
the artist, as there is nothing in which the judgment
is more apt to falsify the visual impression than in
these effects of distance.
The reason of these errors of judgment un-
doubtedly lies in the principle we have before men-
tioned, viz., that we use our eyes for the practical
purpose of distinguishing one object from another,
and for this purpose we have to disregard, as much
as possible, the varying appearances of the same
As a rule we think of an object as we see it under
the most favourable circumstances for bringing out
its peculiarities, viz., near to us, in a good light, and
in such a position that we see its form most plainly.
This is, to us, what the object is really like. If we
happen to see it very much foreshortened we disre-
gard this foreshortening as much as possible, and so
far do we carry this that we actually imagine we see
it less foreshortened than it is. This is why the draw-
ing of anything that is foreshortened is so very diffi-
cult. In itself there is no more difficulty in drawing
an object in one position than in another. In every
case the object forms a mass of a certain definite out-
line, which is very often less complicated in the fore-
shortened form than in the other, yet when we come
to draw this outline we inevitably modify it in ac-
cordance with our conception of what the object
ought to look like.
For instance, if a beginner has to draw the top of
a square table, he will inevitably draw it squarer than
it really appears to him, because his idea of the table
is a square, although he very likely has never seen it
as such. Again, if you set a child to draw a carriage,
even if he has one in front of him to draw from, he
will certainly make the further wheels as large, or
nearly so, as the near ones. He knows they are
really the same size, and this makes him think that
he sees them so. It is to correct errors of this kind
that ordinary perspective is so valuable. It is no
part of my present purpose to enter further into this
subject. I have merely endeavoured to show why it
is so necessary to learn it.
IOO A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
A very similar difficulty occurs in the case of
aerial perspective. We always think of objects as
they appear to us in their most distinctive colours
that is, near to us and in a full light. It is extra-
ordinary how this conception misleads us when we
look at distant objects. It requires long training
before we can recognise the colours in which they
really appear. And yet the colour sensation is there
if we could only pay attention to it, and not confuse
it by our ideas of what the colour ought to be. For
instance, anyone not an artist, if asked what was the
colour of a clump of dark trees on a distant mountain,
would inevitably answer " dark green," which is the
colour he would expect the trees to look if he were
close to them ; and yet the visual impression
they make on his retina is that of a pale blue-
grey. That is how he really sees them ; but it would
take him years of training before he became aware
of it. Here the science of aerial perspective steps
in to help us recover the lost naivete of our visual
impressions. As we have such a tendency to falsify
our impressions we must be helped by rules which
tell us what we really see.
The subject is a difficult one, and it is only quite
of late years that it has been put upon a firm
In most treatises on painting, if any rules of aerial
perspective be given, they are generally quite false
and entirely inconsistent with the practice of artists.
One continually finds such idiotic statements as :
"the effect of atmosphere on colours is to make
them bluer/' quite regardless of the fact that the
sun never looks blue, and the longer the stretch of
atmosphere that it is seen through (as at sunrise or
sunset) the further away from blue it gets.
To arrive at the true theory we must again refer
to the nature of light.
The ether waves, which are the physical side of
light, vary as we have seen in amplitude of swing.
Now, this is only another way of saying that some of
the waves are bigger than others. Of the visible
waves the red are the biggest, the violet are the
smallest. Now let us transfer our thoughts to the
seashore. We will suppose it is a rocky coast, with
great boulders strewn amongst the surf. If we watch
the waves as they come rolling in, we shall see that
a big wave sweeps right past a boulder which is large
enough to turn back a little wave, and to scatter it in
all directions. Now, in spite of their small size, the
same thing happens in the case of the ether waves.
If only we have obstacles small enough, a selective
influence is exerted, the little waves are turned back
and scattered in all directions, whilst the big waves
pass on almost undisturbed. Now, our atmosphere is
strewn with little particles, which are quite small
enough to produce this selective effect tiny portions
of organic or inorganic dust with minute watery
globules. It is these that render our atmosphere
visible in itself air is a colourless gas. Now, let us
consider a little the precise effect of these particles.
As the light streams to us from the sun it has to run
the gauntlet of all these little obstacles, with the
IO2 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
result that a much larger proportion of the big red
and yellow rays reach our eyes than of the little blue
and violet ones. If the extent of dust-laden air is not
too great, as at mid-day, when the sun's rays come
more or less direct to earth, the resultant light is
white ; but then there is little doubt that the sun
itself is blue that is, it would appear blue to us could
we see it without its being modified by our atmo-
sphere. But as the excess of blue rays get filtered out
before the light reaches us, the impression that we get
is white of a warmish tinge a white that can become
blood-red at sunset, when the sun's rays have to reach
us through a vast expanse of the heavily dust-laden
air that is close to the earth's surface.
But what becomes of the blue and violet rays ?
They are dispersed in all directions by these tiny
obstacles, many of them flying off into space ; but
some of them, after many different reflections, finally
find their way to us by a more or less roundabout
path. It is these rays that constitute the blue of the
sky. They are the smaller visible waves, filtered out
from the sunlight that reaches us directly, and restored
to us in part by the very particles that have stopped
them and dispersed them.
This filtering effect applies, of course, not only to-
the direct light of the sun but also to any light that
reaches us, whether from a self-luminous body or
whether it be reflected sunlight.
Take the case of a distant mountain covered here
with patches of snow, there with dark pine forests.
The light that reaches us from the patches of snow
will be chiefly reflected sunlight. As the light is
powerful it will reach us almost unchanged by the
stratum of air in between ; should the mountain be
very distant, and the air heavily dust-laden, the snow
will assume a warm tinge, owing to the smaller waves
being filtered out and dispersed ; but this tendency is
partly counteracted by the blue light which reaches
us reflected from the particles themselves in fact,
the air between us and the mountain is a part of the
blue sky, and naturally sends blue light to us ; but if
the light from the snow is very powerful this blue
light is overpowered, and the general tone is warm.
The dark forests, on the other hand, send very little
light to us, so that we get, almost unchanged, the
blue light of the atmosphere between us and the
forests, so that instead of the dark green of the pine
trees what we really see is the light grey-blue of the
In the same way any patches of rock on the
mountain which are lighter than the air between them
and us will appear of a slightly warmer tone than if
they were close at hand ; whereas dark patches of rock
will appear of the colour of the atmosphere.
The light, in fact, that reaches us from any distant
object is the result of a sort of give and take between
it and the atmosphere. The light that it sends to us
is made warmer or more orange by being deprived of
its blue rays ; but then the atmosphere itself sends us
a blue light which conflicts with this warm tone. If
the object is lighter than the atmosphere, the result
of this exchange is either to leave its colour almost
104 A MANUAL OF OIL TAINTING.
unaltered or else to make it warmer ; no light object
is ever made bluer by distance.
If the object is darker than the atmosphere the
atmospheric tint prevails, and its colour becomes
lighter and bluer. The colour of very dark objects at
a considerable distance is entirely replaced by the
atmospheric colour, so that all dark objects at a
distance have a tendency to assume a light grey-blue
So that the whole effect of our distant mountain is
that the patches of light upon it tell out strongly
with all their differences of colour clearly marked,
although with a tendency to an extra warmth of hue ;
whilst the shadows and the dark patches generally
are of an almost uniform tone of grey-blue all local
differences of colour being obliterated by the atmo-
spheric tints between them and the spectator.
Such is, briefly, the rule of aerial perspective.
The effect of distance is to leave lights warmer or
unchanged. Darks all tend to a uniform light grey-
blue. Once this truth is recognised, the eye can be
rapidly trained to see the colours of distance as they
really appear. The painter will never be safe until
this is done, for no amount of theory can supply the
want of immediate perception. But the theory can
undoubtedly aid the perception, and can, to a certain
extent, supplement its shortcomings.
But we have not done yet with the action of
minute particles on light. What we see on a very
grand scale in the atmosphere obtains also in a much
lesser degree in artists' pigments. These consist of
very minute particles, floating about in a more or less
colourless medium i.e., the oil in which they are
ground. Now, these minute particles exercise a
selective effect on light, solely by reason of their
minuteness, and quite independently of the proper
colour of the pigment they compose. The pigment
in itself absorbs certain rays of light, reflects others,
and transmits others. If the coat of paint be suffi-
ciently thick and opaque it will hardly transmit any
rays at all. We then get the true colour of the pig-
ment that is, simply the rays that it reflects ; but if
the coat of paint be thin and transparent it is naturally
modified by the ground on which it is laid shining
through it. At first sight the effect of this would
seem to be very simple. A white ground, such as the
ordinary surface of a canvas, shining through a thin
coat of pigment, would naturally be supposed to make
the pigment appear whiter, whilst a black ground
would make it blacker, and, generally, a ground of
any particular colour would simply mix its own tint
with that of the overlaid pigment.
But in practice this is found not to be the case
not, at least, with the simplicity and completeness
that we should expect.
For instance, if we smear a little yellow ochre
lightly over a white ground, so that it appears more
or less transparent, the resultant colour is more
orange than the proper hue of yellow ochre. Again,
if we rub it lightly over a black ground we get a
much colder tint. It assumes a slightly greenish
106 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
The effect is, perhaps, most marked with black
pigments. If we mix ivory-black with flake-white we
have a neutral grey. If, instead of mixing it with a
white pigment, we rub it lightly over a white ground,
so that the ground shows through, we obtain a
decided brown ; whereas, if we take the neutral grey
produced by the mixture with flake-white and rub it
lightly over a black ground, we do not obtain merely
a darker grey but a grey that is of a decidedly bluish
tinge. And, generally, we can say of all pigments,
that when a ground lighter than themselves is seen
through them, then the resultant tint inclines towards
warmth ; whereas if the ground be darker than them-
selves, the resultant colour inclines towards coldness
warm and cold, as applied to colours, meaning here,
as elsewhere, nearer the red and nearer the violet
ends of the spectrum respectively.
Of course the effect of this is very slight, but it is
distinctly perceptible, and has to be carefully borne
in mind in all oil-painting. Only by painting thickly
can we be sure that any tint we have mixed will re-
main unchanged when we put it on the canvas. A
thin coat of paint will be warmer or colder than its
true tint, according as it is put over a light or a dark
So different are the effects of a thin coat of paint
on a light and a dark ground respectively that artists
apply two different names to these operations. A
thin coat of paint over a ground lighter than itself is
called a glaze, but over a ground darker than itself
is called a scumble. A glaze nearly always gives
richness and warmth, whereas scumbling is used to
give cold grey tints.
This cold or warm tendency that is added to the
original colour is produced precisely in the same way
as the modifications of aerial perspective. We have
seen how the light parts of a mountain look warmer
through the intervening stratum of air, whereas the
darks look bluer, and that this is solely owing to the
smallness of the particles floating about in the air.
The white ground of our picture answers to the
snowy parts of the mountain. The light that it re-
flects back to the eye has to run the gauntlet of the
minute particles in the layer of paint above it, so that
an undue proportion of the small blue waves get dis-
persed in the process, leaving an excess of the larger
red and orange waves to reach the eye. On the con-
trary, when the ground is dark it absorbs nearly all
the rays that reach it ; but then these rays have been
sifted in their progress through the layer of paint, so
that an undue proportion of the larger waves get
through and are absorbed, leaving an excess of the
colder ones to be reflected back.
Of course it is quite possible in painting to make
use of this property of pigments. There are many
greys that can be obtained more readily by painting
lightly over a dark ground than by mixing the re-
quired tint and painting it solidly, and there are some
rich, warm tints which can hardly be obtained without
a glaze of some transparent colour. Like many other
things in oil-painting, what at first is a difficulty be-
comes, in more practised hands, an additional resource.
108 A MANUAL OF OIL PAINTING.
I must mention that the explanation I have given
of the way that small particles exercise their selective
influence is the one given by Helmholtz and Tyndall.
Other explanations have been proposed, and I believe
the subject is still a matter of controversy, but the
fact that small particles do have this effect on light
is undeniable, and is quite independent of any theory
as to how they do it.
The space at my disposal hardly permits me to
enter at greater length into the theoretical questions
that underlie the art of painting, but I hope I have
said enough to show not only that something is
known of the theoretical side of art, but also that an
acquaintance with that side of art can be of service in
the practical pursuit of painting. Fortunately there
are no lack of writers who have treated these
questions from the scientific side, and, should any
art-student wish to rest his mind from the cant and
ignorance of art-critics and the meaningless eloquence
of the writers on aesthetics generally, I can recommend
him nothing more salutary and refreshing than a
course of Helmholtz, Stokes, or Tyndall.
Who knows ? some day the art of painting may
become progressive; but I am convinced that that
day will not come until painters learn to study their
business with the same devotion and the same in-
telligence with which men of science study theirs.
THE student should accustom himself from the very first to
use none but permanent pigments, for, should he eventually
be able to sell his works, he is bound in common honesty
to see that they are constructed of the best and most
durable materials, and are painted in a substantial and
It is true that the world would be none the worse in
fact, rather the better if most of the pictures that are
painted every year were to fade away into nothingness ; yet,
quite apart from the question of honesty to possible pur-
chasers, it is certain that no artist will do his best unless
he is firmly convinced that his works belong to the small
minority which deserve immortality, and he should take
every pains to make them physically capable of enduring
Fortunately, a good deal of attention has been paid of
late to the question of the stability of pigments, so that it is
now quite possible to draw up a very full list of colours that
are known to be permanent, if only they are properly pre-
pared; and also we can be tolerably certain that artists'
colourmen of established reputation do prepare them pro-
perly, for it is not to their interest to do otherwise. Their
charges are quite sufficiently high to pay for the best skill
and the best material and to yield them a large profit
besides, and, as there is considerable competition in the
matter, any firm whose pigments were found to deteriorate
with time would very soon be crowded out by its honester
or more skilful rivals.
I give below a list of all the oil-colours that are likely
to be serviceable to artists, and which are sufficiently per-
manent to justify their use :
Cadmium (pale and deep).
Lemon yellow (pale and deep).
Naples yellow (pale and deep).
Oxyde of chromium.
Emerald oxyde of chromium.
I must mention that Professor Church (Professor of
Chemistry to the Royal Academy), who has very kindly
assisted me in drawing up this list, considers that the
madders are not quite of the first order of permanency,
changing slightly on exposure to direct sunlight. They
should be used with caution, and, if possible, locked up
in copal or amber varnish, which has a material effect in
preserving doubtful colours. It is quite impossible to do
without some kind of lake, and as all the other lakes, such
as carmine or crimson lake, are quite unfit for use on
account of their tendency to fade, we are obliged to have
recourse to the madders. Most authorities, with the ex-
ception of Professor Church, seem to consider that the
madder lakes are permanent in oil colours.
They must on no account be confounded with yellow
madder, which fades very rapidly on exposure to light.
APPENDIX, 1 1 1
Professor Church also includes vandyke brown amongst
the somewhat doubtful colours. As far as my own practice
goes I have always found it permanent ; but as it is not an
absolutely necessary colour it may be as well to avoid it.
Considerable doubts have been cast on the stability of
flake white, and zinc white has been recommended in pre-
ference ; but Professor Church considers that the former
is perfectly stable under all ordinary conditions, and it is
particularly agreeable to use on account of its full body,
whereas the latter, although quite permanent, is so thin as
to be almost unfit for practical use.
It is not necessary to give a list of the unsafe colours,
but there are one or two against which the student should
be specially warned for instance, lemon cadmium, or
Mutrie yellow, as it is sometimes called, is very fugitive,
although ordinary pale cadmium is considered quite safe.
I have already mentioned that carmine, crimson lake and
yellow madder are very fugitive. Bitumen, although the
colour of it is permanent, is a very dangerous pigment, as it
is always liable to liquefy when exposed to a moderate
degree of heat, and this naturally prevents it from com-
bining properly with other colours, and is likely eventually
to produce cracks.
The medium used for painting when properly chosen
tends to preserve the pigments it is used with. Copal,
amber varnish, linseed-oil, nut-oil, poppy-oil, Roberson's
medium, siccatif de Harlem and turpentine are all safe
mediums to use. Nut-oil and poppy-oil are very slow driers,
so they are not available for ordinary purposes. Turpen-
tine should be used tolerably fresh, as it has a tendency to
become yellow and resinous. The other mediums will keep
indefinitely, except that they are apt to get rather thick
Varnish also tends to preserve pictures, but it should
not be applied until the picture has been painted at least a
year, as it is essential that all the layers of paint should be
perfectly dry before the picture is varnished. Mastic is the
only varnish that should be used, as it can always be rubbed
off if it has got dark with age without in any way injuring
the paint beneath. Before pictures are varnished it is as
well to protect them with a glass, especially in London.
After they are varnished the glass can be dispensed with.
If there be any danger of the pictures suffering from foul
air, the back of the canvas should be whitewashed with a
paste made by mixing starch with flake white in powder.
It must be remembered that oil pictures, especially
when freshly painted, should not be kept in the dark, as the
oil in them has a tendency to grow darker when deprived
of light. However, a picture that has suffered in this way
can generally be restored to its proper tone by putting it
for some time in sunlight to bleach. Should this not be
sufficient, a solution of peroxide of hydrogen can be em-
ployed to hasten the bleaching process.
Alma-Tadema, Mr., Palette of,
Anatomy, 35, 36.
Art of Painting, 1,2.
Atmosphere, Effect of, 100, 103,
" Bleaching," 112.
" Blocking out," II.
Brougham, Lord, 72.
Brushes, 15, 53, 55.
Cadmium, Deep and Pale, 13,
Camera, Photographic, 69, 70.
Cast, Painting from, 31, 32.
Charcoal Studies, 42, 43.
Chromium, Emerald Oxide of, 1 3.
Church, Prof., on Oil Colours,
"Colour," Theory of, 7178,
Colour-blindness, 71, 77 79-
Colours, The Choice of, 1215 ;
Mr. Poynter's Directions as
to, 51 54; the Constitution
Convergence of the Eyes, 92, 93.
Costumes, Ancient, 44.
Deceptions of Vision, 89 95.
Directions for Oil Painting by
Mr. Poynter, 5154.
Distance, 98, 104.
Draperies, Study of, 34, 44, 45.
Drawing, Preliminary, P, 9, 27.
Drying of Canvas, 19.
Duran, M. Carolus, Method of,
Dutch Painters, 63.
Edges, Sharp, 21.
Ether, Waves of, 66, 67, 76, 101.
Eye, The Human, 70, 76, 79,
80, 84, 85.
Figure Drawing and Painting,
27, 28, 3035-
Flesh Painting, 32-34.
Glazing, 53, 107.
Greek Art, 28, 29, 35.
Hamerton, Mr , on the "Graphic
Arts," 62, 64.
Helmholtz on the " Theory of
Colour," 72, 73, 81, 108.
Illumination, 8587, 93.
Imagination, 37, 38.
Landscape Painting, 24 27, 50,
51, 85. 86.
" Laws of the Medes and Per-
Leonardo, 3, 36, 63.
I ight, Theory of, 6, 7, 22, 23,
76, 82, 83 86, 87, 101 103,
Linseed Oil, Use of, 14, 19, in.
Looking-glass, Use of, 10, 27.
Materials to be used, 8.
Matter, The Nature of, 6668.
" Medium," Use of, 14, 19, 53,
Merrifield, Mrs., on the Art of
Methods of Painting, 51, 55, 57,
Michael Angelo, 28.
Middle Ages, 41.
Millais, Sir J., 9, 50, 51, 59.
Models, 29, 30, 35, 42 44.
Monochrome, 51, 54.
Moonlight. 84, 86, 87.
Murray Method, The, 60.
Nature, Faithful Representation
of, 65, 96.
Newton on Colours, 73.
Nude, 29, 30.
Oil Colours, List of, no 112.
Oiling of Canvas, 19.
Optic Nerve, 68, 70.
Paint, Laying on, 17, 18, 106.
Palette, 12 15.
Panorama of the Siege of Paris,
Particles, Minute, 66, 104 106,
Perspective, Aerial, 26, 98 104.
Piece-meal, Painting, 55 57.
Pigments, 12, 15, 74, 82, 83,
105 107, 109.
Portraits, Treatment of, 47 50.
Portraiture, 36 50.
Poynter, Mr., Method of, 51
"Primaries,"or Primary Colours,
Proportion, 28, 44.
Pupils, I, 2.
Raffaelle's " Transfiguration,"
Rays, 68, 71, 102. 105.
" Reality " of Pictures, 46.
Renaissance, Italian, 41.
Retina of the Human Eye, 70,
76, 79, 80, 84, 85, 88.
Reynolds, Sir J., Method of, 6l.
Rood, Prof., on "Modern Chro-
Rose madder. 15.
"Scene," 4, 83.
Scenes, Discrepancies of, 92 98.
"Secondaries," or Secondary
Colours, 73, 75, 76.
Sensations of Colour, 78 80,
Sight, Theory of, 66 71.
Sketch, Preliminary, II, 42.
Statues, Antique, 20, 35.
" Still-life," 6, 7, 8, 23, 24.
Stokes, Prof., 108.
Student, 2, 65, 96.
Subjects, Study of, 38 50.
Tadema, Mr. Alma-, Palette of,
" Tertiaries, " or Tertiary Co-
lours, 74, 76.
Texture, 20, 21, 32.
Theory of Painting, 65, 108.
"Tint," 22, 75,
Tints, Matching of, 16, 17, 20;
Warmth of, 107.
Titian, Method of, 62. .
" Tone," 22, 25.
Tyndall, Prof., 108.
Vandyke brown, ill.
Varnish, in, 112.
Vision, Illusions of, 89 95, 98.
Wollaston on Sunligh^, 84.
White, Flake and Zinc, 1 1 1 .
Young, Thomas, 72, 76, 77, Si,
PRINTED BY CASSBLL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LA UELLE SAUVAGE, LONDON, E.C.
Selections from Cassell $ Company's Publications.
Illustrate**, Jfine-Jlrt, antt otljer ITolumes.
Abbeys and Churches of England and Wales, The: Descriptive,
Historical, Pictorial. 2is.
After London; or, Wild England. BythelateRicHARDjEFFERiES. 35. 6d.
Along Alaska's Great River. By Lieut. SCHWATKA. Illustrated. izs.6d.
American Penman, An. By JULIAN HAWTHORNE. Boards, as. ;
cloth, 35. 6d.
American Yachts and Yachting. Illustrated. 6s.
Arabian Nights Entertainments, The (Cassell's Pictorial Edition).
With about 400 Illustrations. 103. 6d.
Architectural Drawing. By PHF.N& SPIERS. Illustrated. IDS. 6d.
Art, The Magazine ofT Yearly Vol. With 12 Photogravures, Etchings,
&c., and several hundred choice Engravings. l6s.
Behind Time. By GEORGE PARSONS LATHROP. Illustrated, as. 6d.
Bimetallism, The Theory of. By D. BARBOUR. 6s.
Bismarck, Prince. By CHARLES LOWE, M.A. Two Vols. IDS. 6d.
Black Arrow, The. A Tale of the Two Roses. By R. L. STEVENSON. 55.
British Ballads. With 275 Original Illustrations. Two Vols. 75. 6d. each.
British Battles on Land and Sea. By the late JAMES GRANT. Witli
about 00 Illustrations Three Vols., 410, i 78.; Library Edition, i IDS.
British Battles, Recent. Illustrated. 410, gs. ; Library Edition, los.
British Empire, The. By Sir GEORGB CAMPBELL, M.P. 33.
Browning, An Introduction to the Study of. By A. SYMONS. 2s. 6d.
Butterflies and Moths, European. By W. F. KIRBY. With 61
Cojoured Plates. Demy 410, 355.
Canaries and Cage-Birds, The Illustrated Book of. By W. A
BLAKSTON, W. SWAYSLAND, and A. F. WIENER. With 56 Fac-simile
Coloured Plates, 355. Half-morocco. a 53.
Cannibals and Convicts. By JULIAN THOMAS (" The Vagabond"). 53.
Captain Trafalgar. By VVBSTALI. and LAURIE. 55.
Cassell's Family Magazine. Yearly Vol. Illustrated, gs.
Celebrities of the Century : being a Dictionary of Men and
Women of the Nineteenth Century, ais. ; Roxburgh, 255.
Chess Problem, The. A Text-Book, with Illustrations, js. 6d.
Children of the Cold, The. By Lieut. SCHWATKA. 2s. 6d.
Choice Poems by H. W. Longfellow. Illustrated. Cloth, 6s.
Choice Dishes at Small Cost. By A. G. PAYNE, is.
Christmas in the Olden Time. By Sir WALTER SCOTT, with Original
Illustrations. 73. 6d.
Cities of the World. Three Vols. Illustrated. 73. 6d. each.
Civil Service, Guide to Employment in the. 33. 6d.
Civil Service. Guide to Female Employment in Government
Clinical Manuals lor Practitioners and Students of Medicine. A
List of Volumes forwarded post free on application to the Publisher.
Clothing, Thi Influence of, on Health. By F. TREVES, F.R C.S. 2s.
Colonies and India, Our, How we Got Them, and Why we Keep
Them. By Prof. C. RANSOME. is.
Colour. By Prof. A. H. CHURCH. Niw and Enlarged Edition, with
Coloured Plates. 33. 6d.
Columbus, Christopher, The Life and Voyages of. By WASHINGTON
IRVING. Three Vols. 73. 6d.
Commodore Junk. By G. MANVILLB FENN. 53.
Cookery, Cassell's Dictionary of. Containing about Nine Thousand
Recipes, 73. 6d. ; Roxburgh, los. 6d.
Co-operators, Working Men: What they have Done, and What
they are Doing. By A. H. DYKE-ACLAND, M.P., and B. JONES, is.
Cookery, A Year's. By PHYLLIS BROWNE. 35. 6d.
5 G. 7.88
Selections from Cassell $ Company's Publications.
Cookery, Cassell's Shilling. The Largest and Best Work on the
Subject ever produced. 384 pages, limp cloth, is.
Cook Book, Catherine Owen's New. 43.
Countries of the World, The. By ROBERT BROWN, M.A., Ph.D., &c.
Cyclopaedia, Cassell's Concise. With 12,000 subjects, brought down
to the latest date. With about 600 Illustrations, 153. ; Roxburgh, l8s.
Dairy Farming. By Prof. J. P. SHELDON. With 25 Fac-simile Coloured
Plates. Cloth, 2is.
Dead Man's Rock. A Romance. By Q. 55.
Decisive Events in History. By THOMAS ARCHER. With Sixteen
Illustrations. Boards, 33. 6d. ; cloth, 53.
Deserted Village Series, The. Consisting of Editions de luxe of the
most favourite poems of Standard Authors. Illustrated. 2s. 6d. each.
SONGS FROM SHAKESPEARE.
MILTON'S L/ALLEGRO AND IL
GOLDSMITH'S DESERTED VILLAGE.
WORDSWORTH'S ODE ON IMMORTALITY,
AND LINES ON TlNTERN ABBEY.
Dickens, Character Sketches from. FIRST, SECOND, and THIRD SERIES.
With Six Original Drawings in each by F. BARNARD. In Portfolio,
Diary of Two Parliaments. By W. H. LUCY. Vol. I. : The Disraeli
Parliament. Vol. II. : The Gladstone Parliament, izs. each.
Dog Stories and Dog Lore. By Col. THOS. W. KNOX. 6s.
Dog, The. By IDSTONE. Illustrated. 2s. 6d.
Dog, Illustrated Book of the. By VERO SHAW, B.A. With 28 Coloured
Plates. Cloth bevelled, 353. ; half-morocco, 453.
Domestic Dictionary, The. Illustrated. Cloth, 73. 6d.
Dore's Dante's Inferno. Illustrated by GUSTAVE DORE. 213.
Dora's Dante's Purgatorio and Paradiso. Illustrated by GUSTAVE
DORE. Popular Edition. 2is.
re's Fairy Tales Told Again,
ire Gallery, The. With 250 Illu
jJore's Milton's Paradise Lost. Illustrated by JJORE. 410, 2is.
Earth, Our, and its Story. By Dr. ROBERT BROWN, F.L.S. Vol. I.
With Coloured Plates and numerous Wood Engravings, gs.
Edinburgh, Old and New. Three Vols. With 600 Illustrations, qs. each.
Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque. By Prof. G. EBERS.
Translated by CLARA BELL, with Notes by SAMUEL BIRCH, LL.D., &c.
With 800 Original Engravings. Popular Edition. In Two Vols. 423.
"8g." A Novel. By EDGAR HENRY. Cloth, 35. 6d.
Electricity in the Service of Man. With nearly 850 Illustrations. 2is.
Electricity, Practical. By Prof. W. E. AYRTON. 73. 6d.
Electricity, Age of, from Amber Soul to Telephone. By PARK
BENJAMIN, Ph.D. 73. 6d.
Encyclopaedic Dictionary, The. A New and Original Work of Refer-
ence to all the Words in the English Language. Complete in Fourteen
Divisional Vols. , IDS. 6d. each; or Seven Vols., half-morocco, 2is. each.
England, Cassell's Illustrated History of. With 2,000 Illustrations.
Ten Vols., 410, gs. each. New and Revised Edition. Vols. I. and II.
English History, The Dictionary of. Cloth, 2is. ; Roxburgh, 255.
English Literature, Library of. By Prof. HENRY MORLEY. Five
Vols., 73. 6d. each.
VOL. I. SHORTER ENGLISH POEMS.
VOL. II. ILLUSTRATIONS OF ENGLISH RELIGION.
VOL. III. ENGLISH PLAYS.
VOL. IV. SHORTER WORKS IN ENGLISH PROSE. [ PROSE.
VOL. V. SKETCHES OF LONGER WORKS IN ENGLISH VERSF. AND
English Literature, The Story of. By ANNA BUCKLAND. 33. 6d.
Selections from Cassell $ Company's Publications.
English Literature, Morley's First Sketch of. Revised Edition, 75. G&.
English Literature, Dictionary of. By W. DAVENPORT ADAMS.
Cheap Edition, 75. 6d. ; Roxburgh, los. 6d.
English Writers. By Prof. HENRY MORLEY. Vols. I., II., III., and
IV. Crown 8vo, 53. each.
/Esop's Fables. Illustrated throughout by ERNEST GRISET. Cheap
Edition. Cloth, 33. 6d.
Etching. By S. K. KOEHLER. With 30 Full-Page Plates by Old and
Modern Etchers. 4 43.
Etiquette of Good Society, is. ; cloth, is. 6d.
Europe, Pocket Guide to, Cassell's. Leather. 6s.
Eye, Ear, and Throat, The Management of the. 33. 6d.
Fair Trade Unmasked. By GEORGE W. MEDLEY. 6d.
Family Physician, The. By Eminent PHYSICIANS and SURGEONS.
New and Revised Edition. Cloth, 213. ; Roxburgh, 253.
Fenn, G. Manville, Works by. Picture boards, 2s. each ; or cloth,
2s. 6d. each.
MY PATIENTS. Being the Notes
of a Navy Surgeon.
DUTCH THE DIVER.
) In doth
THE PARSON o' DUMFORD.
THE VICAR'S PEOPLE.
Ferns, European. By JAMES BRITTEN, F.L.S. With 30 Fac-simile
Coloured Piates by D. BLAIR, F.L.S. 2is.
Field Naturalist's Handbook, The. By the Rev. J. G. WOOD
and THEODORE WOOD. 53.
Figuier's Popular Scientific Works. With Several Hundred Illustra-
tions in each. 33. 5d. each.
THE HUMAN RACE.
WORLD BEFORE THE DELUGE.
REPTILES AND BIRDS.
THE OCEAN WORLD.
THE VEGETABLE WORLD.
THE INSECT WORLD.
Fine-Art Library, The. Edited by JOHN SPARKES, Principal of the
South Kensington Art Schools. Each Book contains about ico
Illustrations. 53. each.
ENGRAVING. By LeVicomte Henri
Delaborde. Translated by R.
A. M. Stevenson.
TAPESTRY. By Eugene Miintz.
Translated by Miss L. J. Davis.
THE ENGLISH SCHOOL OF PAINT-
ING. By E. Chesneau. Translated
by L. N. Etherington. With an
Introduction by Prof. Ruskin.
THE FLEMISH SCHOOL OF PAINT-
ING. By A. J. Wauters. Trans-
lated by Mrs. Henry Rossel.
Five Pound Note, The, and other Stories. By G. S. JEALOUS, is.
Flower Painting, Elementary. With Eight Coloured Plates. 33.
Flowers, and How to Paint Them. By MAUD' NAFTEL. With
Coloured Plates. 55.
Forging of the Anchor, The. A Poem. By Sir SAMUEL FERGUSON,
LL.D. With 20 Original Illustrations. Gilt edges, 53.
Fossil Reptiles, A History of British. By Sir RICHARD OWEN,
K.C.B., F.R.S., &c. With 268 Plates. In Four Vols., 12 I2S.
France as It Is. By ANDR LEBON and PAUL PELET. With Three
Maps. Crown 8vo, cloth, ys. 6d.
Franco-German War, Cassell's History of the. Two Vols. With
500 Illustrations, gs. each.
Fresh-water Fishes of Europe, The. By Prof. H. G. SEBLKY, F.R.S.
< Cheap Edition. 73. 6d.
From Gold to Grey. Being Poems and Pictures of Life and Nature. By
MARY D. BRINE. Illustrated. 73. 6d.
THE EDUCATION OP THK ARTIST.
By Ernest Chesneau. Translated
by Clara Bell. (Non-illustrated.)
GREEK ARCHEOLOGY. By Maxime
Collignon. Translated by Dr.
J. H. Wright.
Translated by F. E. Fenton.
THE DUTCH SCHOOL OF PAINTING.
By Henry Havard. Translated
by G. Powell.
Selections from Cassell <$ Company's Publications.
Garden Flowers, Familiar. By SHIRLEY HIBBERD. With Coloured
Plates by F. E. HULME, F.L.S. Complete in Five Series. I2s.6d.each.
Gardening, Cassell's Popular. Illustrated. 4 vols., 55. each.
Geometrical Drawing for Army Candidates. By H. T. LILLEY,
Geometry, First Elements of Experimental. By PAUL BERT. is.6d.
Geometry, Practical Solid. By MAJOR Ross. as.
Germany, \Villiam of. A succinct Biography of William I., German
Emperor and King of Prussia. By ARCHIBALD FORBES. Crown 8vo,
cloth, 35. 6d.
Gladstone, Life of W. E. ByG. BARNETT SMITH. With Portrait. 35. 6d.
Gleanings from Popular Authors. Two Vols. With Original Illus-
trations. 410, gs. each. Two Vols. in One, 153.
Great Bank Robbery, The. ANovel. ByJuLiAN HAWTHORNE. Boards, 2=.
Great Industries of Great Britain. Three Vols. With about 400
Illustrations. 410, cloth, 75. 6d. each.
Great Painters of Christendom, The, from Cimabue to Wilkie.
By JOHN FORBES-ROBERTSON. Illustrated throughout. I2s. 6d.
Great Northern Railway, The Official Illustrated Guide to the.
is. ; or in cloth, as.
Great Western Railway, The Official Illustrated Guide to the.
New and Revised Edition. With Illustrations, is. ; cloth, 2s.
Gulliver's Travels. With 88 Engravings by MORTEN. Cheap Edition.
Cloth, 33. 6d. ; cloth gilt, 55.
Gum Boughs and Wattle Bloom, Gathered on Australian Hills
and Plains. By DONALD MACDONALD. 53.
Gun and its Development, The. By W. W. GREENER. With 500
Illustrations. los. 6d.
Guns, Modern Shot. By W. W. GREENER. Illustrated. 55.
Health, The Book of. By Eminent Physicians and Surgeons. Cloth,
ais. ; Roxburgh, 255.
Health, The Influence of Clothing on. By F. TREVES, F.R.G.S. 23.
Health at School. By CLEMENT DUKES, M.D., B.S. 75. 6d.
Heavens, The Story of the. By Sir ROBERT STAWELL BALL, F.R.S.,
F.R.A.S. With Coloured Plates and Wood Engravings. 315. 6d.
Heroes of Britain in Peace and War. In Two Vols., with 300
Original Illustrations. 53. each ; or One Vol., library binding, IDS. 6d.
Homes, Our, and How to Make them Healthy. By Eminent
Authorities. Illustrated. 153. ; Roxburgh, i8s.
Horse Keeper, The Practical. By GEORGE FLEMING, LL.D., F.R. C.V.S.
Illustrated. 75. 6d.
Horse, The Book of the. By SAMUEL SIDNEY. With 28 fac-simile
Coloured Plates. Enlarged Edition. Demy 410, 35S.; half-morocco, 453.
Horses, The Simple Ailments of. By W. F. Illustrated. 53.
Household Guide, Cassell's. Illustrated. Four Vols., 203.
How Dante Climbed the Mountain. By ROSE EMILY SELFE. With
Eight Full-page Engravings by GUSTAVE DORE. 2s.
How Women may Earn a Living. By MERCY GROGAN. is.
India, Cassell's History^ of. By JAMES GRANT. With about 400
Illustrations, library binding. One Vol. 155.
India: the Land and the People. By Sir J. CAIRO, K.C.B. IDS. 6d.
Indoor Amusements, Card Games, and Fireside Fun, Cassell's
Book of. Illustrated. 35. 6d.
Irish Parliament, The ; What it Was and What it Did. By J. G.
SWIFT MACNEILL, M.A., M.P. is.
Irish Parliament, A Miniature History of the. By J. C. HASLAM. sd.
Irish Union, The; Before and Alter. By A. K. CONNELL, M.A. 2s. 6d.
John Parmelee's Curse. By JULIAN HAWTHORNE, as. 6d.
Kennel Guide, The Practical. By Dr. GORDON STABLES, is.
Khiva, A Ride to. By Col. FRED. BURNABY. is. 6d.
Kidnapped. By R. L. STKVENSON. Illustrated Edition. 55.
King Solomon's Mines. ByH. RIDER HAGGARD. Illustrated Edition. 53.
Selections from Cassetl $ Company's Publications.
Ladies' Physician, The. A Guide for Women in the Treatment of
their Ailments. By a Physician. 6s.
Lady Biddy Fane. By FRANK BARRETT. Three Vols. Cloth, 315. 6d.
Lady's World, The. An Illustrated Magazine of Fashion and Society.
Yearly Vol. l8s.
Land Question, The. By Prof. J. ELLIOT, M.R.A.C. Including the
Land Scare and Production of Cereals. 35. 6d.
Landscape Painting in Oils, A Course of Lessons in. By A. F.
GRACE. With Nine Reproductions in Colour. Cheap Edition, 253.
Law, About Going to. By A. J. WILLIAMS, M.P. as. 6d.
Legends for Lionel. By WALTER CRANE. Coloured Illustrations. 53.
Letts's Diaries and other Time-saving Publications are now pub-
lished exclusively by CASSF.LL & COMPANY. (A list free on application.)
Local Dual Standards. Gold and Silver Currencies. By J. H.NORMAN, is.
Local Government in England and Germany. By the Right Hon.
Sir ROISERT MOKIER, G.C.B., &c. is.
London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway, The Official Illus-
trated Guide to the. is. ; cloth, 2s.
London and North Western Railway, The Official Illustrated
Guide to the. is. , cloth, 2s.
London and South Western Railway, The Official Illustrated
Guide to the. is. ; cloth, as.
London, Greater. By EDWARD WALFORD. Two Vols. With about
400 Illustrations, gs. each.
London, Old and New. Six Vols., each containing about 200
Illustrations and Maps. Cloth, gs. each. [Edition, i6s.
Longfellow's Poetical Works. Illustrated throughout, 3 33.; Popular
Luther, Martin: His Life and Times. Bj- PETER BAYNE, LL.D.
Two Vols., demy 8vo, 1,040 pages. Cloth, 245.
Mechanics, The Practical Dictionary of. Containing 15,000 Draw-
ings. Four Vols. 2is. each.
Medicine, Manuals for Students of. (A List forwarded fast fret.)
Midland Railway, Official Illustrated Guide to the. New and Re-
vised Edition, is.; cloth, as.
Modern Euiops, A History of. By C. A. FYFFE, M.A. Vol. I.,
from 1792 to 1814. I2S. Vol. II.. from 18:4 to 1848. 125.
Music, Illustrated History of. By EMIL NAUMANN. Edited by the
Rev. Sir F. A. GORE OUSELEY, Bart. Illustrated. Two Vols. 313. (jd.
National Library, Cassell's. In Weekly Volumes, each containing
about 192 pages. Paper covers, 3d. ; cloth, 6d. (A List of the Volumes
already issued sent post free on application.)
Natural History, Cassell's Concise. By E. PERCEVAL WRIGHT,
M.A., M.D., F.L.S. With several Hundred Illustrations. 73. 6d.
Natural History, Cassell's New. Edited by Prof. P. MARTIN
DUNCAN, M.B., F.R.S., F.G.S. Complete in Six Vols. With about
2.000 Illustrations. Cloth, gs. each.
Nimrod in the North ; or, Hunting and Fishing Adventures in the
Arctic Regions. By Lieut. SCHWATKA. Illustrated, ys. 6d.
Nursing for the Home and for the Hospital, A Handbook of.
By CATHERINE J. WOOD. Cheap Edition, is. 6d. ; cloth, 2s.
Oil Painting, A Manual of. By the Hon. JOHN COLLIER. 2s. 6d.
Orion the Gold Beater. A Novel. By SYLVANUS COBB, Junr. Cloth, 33. 6d.
Our Own Country. Six Vols. With 1,200 Illustrations. 75. 6d. each.
Out-door Sports and In-door Amusements, Cassell's Book of.
With more than 900 Illustrations. Cheap Edition. 992 pages.
Medium 8vo, cloth, 35. 6d.
Painting, Practical Guides to. With Coloured Plates and full in-
structions : Marine Painting, 55. Aninjal Painting, 53. China Paint-
ing" 5 s - Figure Painting, 73. 6d. Elementary Flower Painting, 35
Flower Painting, 2 Books, 53. each. Tree Painting, 55. Water-Colour
Painting, 55. Neutral Tint, 53. Sepia, in 2 Vols., 33. each ; or in
One Vol., 5S. Flowers, and How to Paint Them, 53.
Selections from Cassell Company's Publications.
Paris, Cassell's Illustrated Guide to. Cloth, 2s.
Parliaments, A Diary of Two. By H. \V. LUCY. The Disraeli Par-
liament, 1874 1880. I2s. The Gladstone Parliament, 188 1 1886. ias.
Paxton's Flower Garden. By Sir JOSEPH PAXTON and Prof. LINDLEY.
Three Vols. With 100 Coloured Plates. i is. each.
Peoples of the World, The. In Six Vols. By Dr. ROBERT BROWN.
Illustrated. 73. 6d. each.
Phantom City, The. By W. WESTALL. Second Edition. 53.
Photography for Amateurs. By T. C. HEPWORTH. Illustrated, is.;
or cloth, is. 6d.
Phrase and Fable, Dictionary of. By the Rev. Dr. BREWER. Cheap
Edition, Enlarged, cloth, 33. 6d. ; or with leather back, 43. 6d.
Picturesque America. Complete in Four Vols., with 48 Exquisite Steel
Plates and about 800 Original Wood Engravings. 2 2s. each.
Picturesque Canada. With 600 Original Illustrations. 2 Vols. 3 33. each.
Picturesque Europe. Complete in Five Vols. Each containing
13 Exquisite Steel Plates, from Original Drawings, and nearly 200
Original Illustrations. 10 IDS. The POPULAR EDITION is published
in Five Vols., 183. each.
Pigeon Keeper, The Practical. By LEWIS WRIGHT. Illustrated. 33. 6d.
Pigeons, The Book of. By ROBERT FULTON. Edited and Arranged by
L. WRIGHT. With 50 Coloured Plates, 315. 6d. ; half-morocco, 2 23.
Poets, Cassell's Miniature Library of the :
BURNS. Two Vols. 2s. 6d.
BYRON. Two Vols. 2s. 6d.
HOOD. Two Vols. 2s. 6d.
LONGFELLOW. Two Vols. 23. 6d.
MILTON. Two Vols. 2s. 6d.
SCOTT. Two Vols. 2s. 6d. [23. 6d.
SHERIDAN and GOLDSMITH. 2 Vols.
WORDSWORTH. Two Vols. 2s. 6d.
SHAKESPEARE. Illustrated. In 12 Vols., in Case, 123.
Police Code, and Manual of the Criminal Law. By C. E. HOWARD
VINCENT, M.P. 2s.
Popular Library, Cassell's. Cloth, is. each.
The Relitf cms Revolution in the
Our Co'omal Empire.
The Young Man in the Battle
The Story of the English Jacobins.
Domestic Folk Lore.
The Rev. Rowland Hill : Preacher
Boswell and Johnson : their Com-
panions and Contemporaries.
History of the Free-Trade Move-
Post Office of Fifty Years Ago, The. Containing Reprint of Sir
ROWLAND HILL'S famous Pamphlet proposing Penny Postage, is.
Poultry Keeper, The Practical. By LEWIS WRIGHT. With Coloured
Plates and Illustrations. 33. 6d.
Poultry, The Illustrated Book of. By LEWIS WRIGHT. With Fifty
Coloured Plates. Cloth, 313. 6d. ; half-morocco, 2 2s.
Poultry, The Book of. By LEWIS WRIGHT. Popular Edition. IDS. 6d.
Pre-Raphaelites, The Italian, in the National Gallery. By COSMO
MONKHOUSE. Illustrated, is.
Printing Machinery and Letterpress Printing, Modern. By J. F.
WILSON and DOUGLAS GREY. Illustrated. 213.
Queen Victoria, The Life and Times of. By ROBERT WILSON. Com-
plete in Two Vols. With numerous Illustrations, gs. each.
Queer Race, A. By W. WESTALL. 53.
Quiver, The. Yearly Volume. Containing Several Hundred Illustra-
tions. 73. 6d.
Rabbit-Keeper, The Practical. By CUNICULUS. Illustrated. 3s. 6d.
Representative Poems of Living Poets American and English.
Selected by the Poets themselves. 153.
Republic of the Future, The. By ANNA BOWMAN DODD. 2s.
Royal River, The : The Thames from Source to Sea. With Descrip-
tive Text and a Series of beautiful Engravings. 2 2S.
Pickwick (2 Vols.)
Last of the Mohicans.
Pride and Prejudice.
Tales of the Borders.
Last Days of Palmyra.
Old Curiosity Shop.
Heart of Midlothian.
Last Days of Pompeii.
Sketches by Boz.
Macaulay's Lays and Essays.
Selections from Cassell $ Company's Publications.
Red Library, Cassell's. Stiff covers, is. each; cloth, as. each.
People I have Met. Poe's Works.
The Pathfinder. Old Mortality.
Evelina. The Hour and the Man.
Scott's Poems. Handy Andy.
Last of the Barons. Scarlet Letter.
Adventures of Mr. Ledbury.
Selections from Hood's Works.
Longfellow's Prose Works.
Sense and Sensibility.
Lytton's Plays. [Harte.
Tales, Poems, and Sketches. Bret
Martin Chuzzlewit (2 Vols.).
The Prince of the House of
Sheridan's Plays. [David.
Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Jack Hintoa, the Guardsman.
Rome and the Early Christians.
The Trials of Margaret Lyndsay.
Russia. By Sir DONALD MACKENZIE WALLACE, M.A. With a new
Autobiographical Chapter. 53.
Russo-Turkish War, Cassell's History of. With about 500 Illus-
trations. Two Vols., gs. each.
Saturday Journal, Cassell's. Yearly Volume, cloth, 73. 6d.
Science for All. Edited by Dr. ROBERT BROWN. Illustrated. Five
Vols. gs. each.
Sea, The: Its Stirring Story of Adventure, Peril, and Heroism.
By F. WHYMPER. With 400 Illustrations. Four Vols., 73. 6d. each.
Section 558, or The Fatal Letter. A Novel. By JULIAN HAWTHORNE.
Boards, 23. ; cloth, 33. 6d.
Sent Back by the Angels. And other Ballads. By FREDERICK LANG-
BRIDGE, M.A. Cloth, 43. 6d. Popular Edition, is.
Shaftesbury, The Seventh Earl of, K.G., The Life and Work of.
By EDWIN HODDER. With Portraits. Three Vols., 363. Popular
Edition, in One Vol., 73. 6d.
Shakspere, The International. Edition de Luxe. " King
Henry IV.," Illustrated by Herr EDUARD GKUTZNER, 3 103. ;
"As You Like It," Illustrated by Mons. EMILE BAYARD, 3 103. ;
" Romeo and Juliet," Illustrated by FRANK DICKSEE, A.R.A., 5 53.
Shakspere, The Leopold. With 400 Illustrations. Cloth, 6s. ; cloth
gilt, 73. 6d. ; half-morocco, IDS. 6d. Cheap Edition. 35. 6d.
Shakspere, The Royal. With Steel Plates and Wood Engravings.
Three Vols. 153. each.
Shakespeare, Cassell's Quarto Edition. Edited by CHARLES and
MARY COWDEN CLARKE, and containing about 600 Illustrations by
H. C. SELOUS. Complete in Three Vols., cloth gilt, 3 33.
Shakespeare, Miniature. Illustrated. In Twelve Vols., in box, 123. ;
or in Red Paste Grain (box to match), with lock and key, 2is.
Shakespearean Scenes and Characters. With 30 Steel Plates and 10
Wood Engravings. The Text written by AUSTIN BRERETON. 213.
Ships, Sailors, and the Sea. By R. J. CORNEWALL- JONES. Illustrated. 53.
Short Studies from Nature. Illustrated. Cheap Edition. 2s. 6d.
Sketching from Nature in Water Colours. By AARON PENLEY.
With Illustrations in Chromo- Lithography. 153.
Skin and Hair, The Management of the. By M. MORRIS, F.R.C.S. as.
Sonnets and Quatorzains. By CHRYS, M.A. Oxon. 55.
Steam Engine, The Theory and Action of the : for Practical Men.
By W. H. NORTHCOTT, C.E. 33. 6d.
Stock Exchange Year-Book, The. By THOMAS SKINNER. las. 6d.
Summer Tide. "Little Folks" Holiday Number, is.
Selections from Cassell $ Company's Publications.
Sunlight and Shade. With numerous Exquisite Engravings. 73. 6d.
Surgery, Memorials of the Craft of, in England. With an Intro-
duction by Sir JAMES PAGET. 2is.
Technical Education. By F. C. MONTAGUE. 6d.
Thackeray, Character Sketches from. Six New and Original Draw-
ings by FREDERICK BARNARD, reproduced in Photogravure. 2is.
Town Holdings, is.
Tragedy of Brinkwater. The. A Novel. By MARTHA L. MOODEY.
Boards, as. ; cloth, 33. 6d.
Tragic Mystery, A. A Novel. By JULIAN HAWTHORNE. Boards, as.
Treasure Island. By R. L. STEVENSON. Illustrated. 55.
Treatment, The Year-Book of. 55.
Trees, Familiar. By G. S. BOULGER, F.L.S. Two Series. With 40
full-page Coloured Plates, from Original Paintings by W. H. J. BOOT.
I2S. 6d. each.
Twenty Photogravures of Pictures in the Salon of 1885, by the
leading French Artists.
"Unicode": the Universal Telegraphic Phrase Book. Desk and
Packet Editions. 2s. 6d. each.
United States, Cassell's History of the. By the late EDMUND
OLLIER. With 600 Illustrations. Three Vols. gs. each.
United States, The Youth's History of the. By EDWARD S. ELLIS.
Illustrated. Four Volumes. 363.
Universal History, Cassell's Illustrated. Four Vols. gs. each.
Vaccination Vindicated. By JOHN McVAiL, M.D., D.P.H. Camb. 55.
Veiled Beyond, The. A Novel. By S. B. ALEXANDER. Cloth, 35. 6d.
Vicar of Wakefield and other Works by OLIVER GOLDSMITH.
Illustrated. 35. 6d. ; cloth, gilt edges, 53.
What Girls Can Do. By PHYLLIS BROWNE, as. 6d.
Who is John Noman ? A Novel. By CHARLES HENRY BECKETT.
Boards, as. ; cloth, 33. 6d.
Wild Birds, Familiar. By W. SWAYSLAND. Four Series. With 40
Coloured Plates in each. I2s. 6d. each.
Wild Flowers, Familiar. By F. E. HULME, F.L.S., F.S.A. Five
Series. With 40 Coloured Plates in each. I2s. 6d. each.
Wise Woman, The. By GEORGE MACDONALD. as. 6d.
Woman's World, The. Yearly Volume. i8s.
World of Wit and Humour, The. With 400 Illustrations. Cloth,
ys. 6d. ; cloth gilt, gilt edges, los. 6d.
World of Wonders. Two Vols. With 400 Illustrations. 73. 6d. each.
Yoke of the Thorah, The, A Novel. By SIDNEY LUSKA. Boards,
as. ; cloth, 35. 6d.
Yule Tide. Cassell's Christmas Annual, is.
The Quiver. ENLARGED SERIES. Monthly, 6d.
Cassell's Family Magazine. Monthly, 7d.
" Iiittle Folks" Magazine. Monthly, 6d.
The Magazine of Art. Monthly, is.
The Woman's World. Monthly, is.
Cassell's Saturday Journal. Weekly, id. ; Monthly, 6d.
Catalogues of CASSELL & COMPANY'S PUBLICATIONS, which may be had at all
Booksellers', or will be sent post free on application to the Publishers :
CASSELL'S COMPLETE CATALOGUE, containing particulars of upwards of
One Thousand Volumes.
CASSELL'S CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE, in which their Works are arranged
a cording to price, from Thrcefence to T-wen'y-five Guineas.
CASSELL'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE, containing particulars of CASSELL
Si COMPANY'S Educational Woiks and Students' Manuals.
CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, Lttdgate Hill, London.
Selections from Cassell $ Company's Publications.
atttt Itclnjtous Storks.
Bible, The Crown Illustrated. With about 1,000 Original Illustrations.
With References, &c. 1,248 pages, crown 410, cloth, ys. 6d.
Bible, Cassell's Illustrated Family. With 900 Illustrations. Leather.
gilt edges, 2 IDS.
Bible Dictionary, Cassell's. With nearly 600 Illustrations. 75. 6d.
Bible Educator, The. Edited by the Very Rev. Dean PLUMPTRE, D.D.,
Wells. With Illustrations, Maps, &c. Four Vols., cloth, 6s. each.
Bible Work at Home and Abroad. Volume. Illustrated. 35.
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (Cassell's Illustrated). 410. 75. 6d.
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. With Illustrations. Cloth, 33. 6d.
Child's Life of Christ, The. With 200 Illustrations. 2is.
Child's Bible, The. With 200 Illustrations. nyd Thousand. 73. 6d.
Dore Bible. With 238 Illustrations by GUSTAVE DoRtf. Small folio,
Early Days of Christianity, The. By the Ven. Archdeacon FARRAR,
LIBRARY EDITION. Two Vols., 243. ; morocco, 2 2s.
POPULAR EDITION. Complete in One Volume, cloth, 6s.; cloth, gilt
edges, 75. 6d. ; Persian morocco, los. 6d. ; tree-calf, 153.
Family Prayer-Book, The. Edited by Rev. Canon GARBETT. M.A.,
and Rev. S. MARTIN. Extra crown 410, cloth, 53. ; morocco, 183.
Geikie, Cunningham, D.D., Works by:
THE HOLY LAND AND THE BIULE. A Book of Scripture Illustrations
gathered in Palestine. Two Vols., demy 8vo, with Map. 243.
HOURS WITH THE BIBLE. Six Vols., 6s. each.
ENTERING ON LIFE. 33. 6d.
THE PRECIOUS PROMISES. 2s. 6d.
THE ENGLISH REFORMATION. 55.
OLD TESTAMENT CHARACTERS. 6s.
THE LIFE AND WORDS OF CHRIST. Illustrated Edition Two Vols.,
303. ; Library Edition Two Vols., 303. ; Students' Edition
Two Vols., i6s. ; Cheap Edition One Vol., 75. 6d.
Glories of the Man of Sorrows, The. Sermons preached at St. James's,
Piccadilly. By Rev. H. G. BONAVIA HUNT, Mus.D., F.R.S., Ed. 23. 6d.
Gospel of Grace, The. By a LINDESIE. Cloth, 33. 6d.
" Heart Chords." A Series of Works by Eminent Divines. Bound in
cloth, led edges, One Shilling each.
My Work for God.
My Object in Life.
My Emotional Life.
My Growth in Divine Lile.
My Walk with God.
My Aids to the Divine Life.
My Sources of Strength.
Helps to Belief. A Series of Helpful Manuals on the Religious
Difficulties of the Day. Edited by the Rev. TEIGNMOUTH SHORE, M.A.,
Chaplain-in-Ordinary to the Queen. Cloth, is. each.
CRF.VriON. By the Lord Bishop of
THE DIVINITY OF O"R LORD. By
the Lord IVshop of Derrv.
THE MORALITY OF TIIF. OLD TESTA-
MENT. By the Rev Newman
MIRACLES. By the Rev. Brownlow
PRAYER. *By the Rer. T. Teignmouth
THE ATONEMENT. By he Lord Bishop
S B. 7.88
Selections from Cassell $ Company's Publications,
I Must. Short Missionary Bible Readings. By SOPHIA M. NUGENT.
Enamelled covers, 6d. ; cloth, gilt edges, is.
Life of Christ, The. By the Yen. Archdeacon FARRAR, D.D., F.R.S.
ILLUSTRATED EDITION, with about 300 Original Illustrations.
Extra crown 410, cloth, gilt edges, 2is. ; morocco antique, 423.
LIBRARY EDITION. Two Vols. Cloth, 243. ; morocco, 425.
POPULAR EDITION, in One Vol. 8vo, cloth, 6s. ; cloth, gilt edges,
75. 6d. ; Persian morocco, gilt edges, IDS. 6d. ; tree calf, 153.
Luther, Martin : His Life and Times. By PETER BAYNE, LL.D.
Two Vols., demy 8vo, 1,040 pages. Cloth, 243.
Marriage Ring, The. By WILLIAM LANDELS, D.D. Bound in white
leatherette, gilt edges, in box, 6s. ; French morocco, 8s. 6d.
Moses and Geology ; or, The Harmony of the Bible with Science.
By the Rev. SAMUEL KINNS, Ph.D., F.R.A.S. Illustrated. Cheap
New Testament Commentary for English Readers, The. Edited
by the Rt. Rev. C. J. ELLICOTT, D.D., Lord Bishop of Gloucester
and Bristol. In Three Volumes, 2is. each.
Vol. I. The Four Gospels.
Vol. II. The Acts, Romans, Corinthians, Galatians.
Vol. III. The remaining Books of the New Testament.
Old Testament Commentary for English Readers, The. Edited
by the Right Rev. C. J. ELLICOTT, D.D., Lord Bishop of Gloucester
and Bristol. Complete in 5 Vols., 2is. each.
Vol. I. Genesis to Numbers.
Vol. II. Deuteronomy to
Vol. III. Kings I. to Esther.
Vol. IV. Job to Isaiah.
'1. IV. J
.1. V. -Je
Vol. V. Jeremiah to Malachi.
Protestantism, The History of. By the Rev. J. A. WYLIE, LL.D.
Containing upwards of 600 Original Illustrations Three Vols. , gs. each.
Quiver Yearly Volume, The. 250 high-class Illustrations. 73. 6d.
Religion, The Dictionary of. By the Rev. W. BENHAM, B.D. 2is. ;
St. George for England ; and other Sermons preached to Children. By
the Rev. T. TEIGNMOUTH SHORE, M.A. 53.
St. Paul, The Life and Work of. By the Ven. Archdeacon FARRAR,
D.D., F.R.S., Chaplain-in-Ordinary to the Queen.
LIBRARY EDITION. Two Vols., cloth, 243. ; calf, 425.
ILLUSTRATED EDITION, complete in One Volume, with about 300
Illustrations, l is. ; morocco, 2 2s.
POPULAR EDITION. One Volume,.8vo, cloth, 6s. ; cloth, gilt edges,
73. 6d. ; Persian morocco, IDS. 6d. ; tree-calf, 15$.
Secular Life, The Gospel of the. Sermons preached at Oxford. By
the Hon. W. H. FREMANTLE, Canon of Canterbury. 53.
Shall We Know One Another ? By the Rt. Rev. J. C RYLE, D.D.,
Bishop of Liverpool. New and Enlarged Edition. Cloth limp, is.
Twilight of Life, The. Words of Counsel and Comfort for the
Aged. By the Rev. JOHN ELLERTON, M.A. is. 6d.
Voice of Time, The. By JOHN STROUD. Cloth gilt, is.
Selections from Cassell if Company's Publications.
(Btmrational KEtorhs anti Jltu&cttts'
Alphabet, Cassell's Pictorial. 33. fid.
Arithmetics, The Modern School. By GEORGE RICKS, B.Sc. Lond.
With Test Cards. (List on application.)
Book-Keeping. By THEODORE JONES. For Schools, as. ; cloth, 33.
For the Million, 2S. ; cloth, 33. Books for Jones's System. 2s.
Chemistry, The Public School. By J. H. ANDERSON, M.A. 2s. 6d.
Commentary, The New Testament. Edited by the Lord Bishop of
GLOUCESTER and BRISTOL. Handy Volume Edition.
St. Matthew, 35. 6d. St. Mark, 33. St. Luke, 33. 6d. St. John,
f. 6d. The Acts of the Apostles, 33. 6d. Romans, 2s. 6d. Corinthians
and II. ,33. Galatians, Ephesians, and Philippians, 33. Colossians,
Thessalonians, and Timothy, 33. Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, and
James, 35. Peter, Jude, and John, 33. The Revelation, 33. An
Introduction to the New Testament, 33. 6d.
Commentary, Old Testament. Edited by Bishop ELLICOTT. Handy
Volume Edition. Genesis, 33. 6d. Exodus, 33. Leviticus, 35.
Numbers, 2s. 6d. Deuteronomy, 2s. 6d.
Copy-Books, Cassell's Graduated. Eighteen Books. 2d. each.
Copy-Books, The Modern School. Twelve Books, -ad. each.
Drawing Copies, Cassell's " New Standard." Fourteen Books.
Books A to F for Standards I. to IV., 2d. each. Books G, H, K, L,
M, O, for Standards V. to VII., jd. each. Books N and P, 4d. each.
Drawing Copies, Cassell's Modern School Freehand. First Grade,
is. ; Second Grade, 2s.
Electricity, Practical. By Prof. W. E. AYRTON. 73. 6d.
Energy and Motion: A Text-Book of Elementary Mechanics.
By WILLIAM PAICE, M.A. Illustrated, is. 6d.
English Literature, First Sketch of. New and Enlarged Edition.
By Prof. MORLEY. 73. 6d.
English Literature, The Story of. By ANNA BUCKLAND. Cloth
boards, 35. 6d.
Euclid, Cassell's. Edited by Prof. WALLACE, M.A. is.
Euclid, The First Four Books of. In paper, 6d. ; cloth, gd.
Experimental Geometry, Elements of. By PAUL BERT. Fully Illus-
trated, is. 6d.
French Reader, Cassell's Public School. By GUILLAUME S.
CONRAD, as. 6d.
French, Cassell's Lessons in. New and Revised Edition. Parts 1.
and II., each 2s. 6d. ; complete, 43. 6d. Key, is. 6d.
French-English and English-French Dictionary. Entirely New
and Enlarged Edition. 1,150 pages, Svo, cloth, 33. 6d.
Galbraith and Haughton's Scientific Manuals. By the Rev. Prof.
GALBRAITH, M.A., and the Rev. Prof. HAUGHTON, M.D., D.C.L.
Arithmetic, 35. 6d. Plane Trigonometry, 2s. 6d. Euclid, Books I.,
II., III., as. 6d. Books IV., V., VI., 23. 6d. Mathematical Tables,
33. 6d. Mechanics, 33. 6d. Natural Philosophy, 33. 6d. Optics,
as. 6d. Hydrostatics, 33. 6d. Astronomy, 53. Steam Engine, 33. 6d.
Algebra, Part I., cloth, as. 6d. ; Complete, 73. 6d. Tides and Tidal
Currents, with Tidal Cards, 33.
German-English and English-German Dictionary. 35. 6d.
German Reading, First Lessons in. By A. JAGST. Illustrated, is.
German of To-Day. By Dr. HEINEMANN. is. 6d.
Handbook of New Code of Regulations. By JOHN F. Moss. is.
Historical Cartoons, Cassell's Coloured. Size 45 in. x 35 in., as.
each. Mounted on canvas and varnished, with rollers, 55. each.
Historical Course for Schools, Cassell's. Illustrated throughout.
I. Stories from English History, is. II. The Simple Outline of
English History, is. 3d. III. The Class History of England, as. 6d.
Selections from Cassetl $ Company's Publications.
Latin-English Dictionary, Cassell's. By J. R. V. MARCHANT, M.A.
Latin-English and English-Latin Dictionary. By J. R. BEARD,
D.D., and C. BEARD, B.A. Crown 8vo, 914 pp., 35. 6d.
Latin Primer, The New. By Prof. J. P. POSTGATR. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d.
Laws of Every-Day Life. By H. O. ARNOLD-FORSTER. is. 6d.
Little Folks' History of England. By ISA CRAIG-KNOX. Illustrated.
Making of the Home, The: A Book of Domestic Economy for School
and Home Use. By Mrs. SAMUEL A. BARNETT. is. 6d.
Marlborough Books: Arithmetic Examples, 33. Arithmetic Rules,
is. 6d. French Exercises, 33. 6d. French Grammar, as. 6d. German
Grammar, 38. 6d.
Mechanics and Machine Design, Numerical Examples in Practical.
By R. G. BLAINE, M.E. With Diagrams. Cloth, zs. 6d.
Music, An Elementary Manual of. By HENRY LESLIE, is.
Popular Educator, Cassell's. Complete in Six Vols., 53. each.
Readers, Cassell's "Higher Class." "The World's Lumber-room."
Illustrated, as. 6d. " Short Studies from Nature." Illustrated, as. 6d.
" The World in Pictures." Ten in Series. Cloth, as. each.
Readers, Cassell's Readable. Carefully graduated, extremely in-
teresting, and illustrated throughout. (List on application.)
Readers, Cassell's Historical. Illustrated throughout, printed on
superior paper, and strongly bound in cloth. (List on application.)
Readers for Inlant Schools, Coloured. Three Books. Each con-
taining 48 pages, including 8 pages in colours. 4d. each.
Reader, The Citizen. By H. O. ARNOI.D-FORSTER. Illustrated, is. d.
Readers, The " Modern School " Geographical. (List on application.)
Readers, The " Modern School." Illustrated. (List on application.)
Reading and Spelling Book, Cassell's Illustrated, is.
School Bank Manual. By AGNES LAMBERT. Price 6d.
Shakspere's Plays for School Use. 5 Books. Illustrated, 6d. each.
Shakspere Reading Book, The. By H. COURT-HOPE BOWEN, M.A.
Illustrated. 33. 6d. Also issued in Three Books, is. each.
Slojd : as a Means of Teaching the Essential Elements of Education. By
EMILY LORD. 6d.
Spelling, A Complete Manual of. By J. D. MORELL, LL.D. is.
Technical Manuals, Cassell's. Illustrated throughout:
Handrailing and Staircasing, 33. 6d. Bricklayers, Drawing for, 33.
Building Construction, as. Cabinet-Makers, Drawing for, 33. Car-
penters and Joiners, Drawing for, 33. 6d. Gothic Stonework, 35.
Linear Drawing and Practical Geometry, as. Linear Drawing and
Projection. The Two Vols. in One, 35. 6d. Machinists and Engineers,
Drawing for, 43. 6d. Metal-Plate Workers, Drawing for, 35. Model
Drawing, 33. Orthographical and Isometrical Projection, as. Practical
Perspective, 3S. Stonemasons, Drawing for, 33. Applied Mechanics,
by Sir R. S. Ball, LL.D., as. Systematic Drawing and Shading, as.
Technical Educator, Cassell's. New Edition, in Four Vols., 55. each.
Technology, Manuals of. Edited by Prof. AYRTON, F.K.S., and
RICHARD WORMELL, D.Sc., M.A. Illustrated throughout :
The Dyeing of Textile Fabrics, by Prof. Hummel, 53. Watch and
Clock Making, by D. Glasgow, 43. 6d. Steel and Iron, by Prof. W. H.
Greenwood, F.C.S., M.I.C.E., &c., 55. Spinning Woollen and
Worsted, by W. S. B. McLaren, M.P., 43. 6d. Design in Textile
Fabrics, by T. R. Ashenhurst, 43. 6d. Practical Mechanics, by Prof.
Perry, M.E., 35. 6d. Cutting Tools Worked by Hand and Machine,
by Prof. Smith, 35. 6d. A Prospectus on application.
Test Cards, "Modern School," Cassell's. In Sets, for each Stan
dard. is. each. With Mental Arithmetic on reverse side.
Test Cards, Cassell's Combination. In sets, is. each.
CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, Lwigatc Hill, London.
Selections from Cassell $ Company's Publications.
ooks for Baling
"Little Folks" Half- Yearly Volume. Containing 432 410 pages
with about 300 Illustrations, and Pictures in Colour. Boards, 35. 6d. ;
or cloth gilt, 55.
Bo- Peep. A Book for the Little Ones. With Original Stories and Verses.
Illustrated throughout. Yearly Volume. Boards, 2s. 6d. ; cloth
gilt, 35. 6d.
Legends for Lionel. New Picture Book by WALTER CRANE. 55.
Flora's Feast. A Masque of Flowers. Penned and Pictured by WALTER
CRANE. With 40 Pages in Colours. 55.
Every-day Heroes. By LAURA LANE. Illustrated. Cloth, 2s. 6d.
The New Children's Album. Fcap. 410, 320 pages. Illustrated
throughout. 35. fid.
The Tales of the Sixty Mandarins. By P. V. RAMASWAMI RAJU.
With an Introduction by Prof. HENRY MORLEY. Illustrated. 53.
The World's Lumber Room. By SEHNA GAVE. as. 6d.
Books for Young People. Illustrated. Cloth gilt, 53. each.
The Palace Beautiful. By L. T.
The King's Command : A Story
for Girls. By Maggie Symington.
For Fortune and Glory: A Story
of the Soudan War. By Lewis
" Follow My Leader ;" or, The
Boys of Templetoru By
Talbot Baines Reed.
Under Bayard's Banner. By Henry
The Romance of Invention. By
The Champion of Odin ; or, Viking
Life in the Days of Old. By f!
Bound by a Spell ; or, The Hunted
Witch of the Forest. By the
Hon. Mrs. Greene.
Books for Young People. Illustrated. Price 33. 6d. each.
The Cost of a Mistake. By Sarah
A World of G-irls: The Story of
a School. By L. T. Meade.
Lost among White Africans:
A Boy's Adventures pn the
Upper Congo. By David Ker.
Freedom's Sword: A Story of
the Days of Wallace and
Bruce. By Annie S. Swan.
The "Cross and Crown" Series.
On Board the "Esmeralda;" or,
Martin Leigh's Log. By John C.
In Guest of Gold; or, Under the
Whanga Falls. By Alfred St.
For Queen and King: or,The Loyal
'Prentice. By Henry Frith.
Perils Afloat and Brigands Ashore.
By Allred Elwes.
Consisting of Stories founded on
incidents which occurred during Religious Persecutions of Past
Days. With Illustrations in each Book. 3s.6d. each.
Strong to Suffer: A Story of
the Jews. By E. Wynne.
Heroes of the Indian Empire:
or, Stories of Valour and
Victory. By Ernest Foster.
In Letters of Flame : A Story
of the Waldenses. By C. L.
Through Trial to Triumph. By
Madeline B. Hunt.
By Fire and Sword: A Story of
the Huguenots. By Thomas
Adam Hepburn's Vow: A Tale of
Kirk and Covenant. By Annie
No. XIII.; or. The Story of the
Lost Vestal. A Tale of Early
Christian Days. By Emma Mat-
'Golden Mottoes" Series, The. Each Book containing 208 pages, with
Four full-page Original Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, as. each.
" Nil Desperandum." By the
Rev. F. Langbridge, M.A.
" Honour is my Guide." By Jeanie
Herine (Mrs. Adams-Acton).
Aim ftt A Siivft TEnH R
"Bear and Forbear." By Sarah
"Foremost if I Can." By Helen
The "Log Cabin" Series. By EDWARD S.ELLIS. With Four Full-
page Illustrations in each. Crown 8vo, cloth, as. 6d. each.
The Lost Trail. | Camp-Fire and Wigwam. | Footprints in the Foreat.
"Aim at a Sure End." By Emily
" He Conquers who Endures." By
the Author of "May Cunninghams
Selections from Casstll $ Company's Publications.
Cassell's Picture Story Books. Each containing Sixty Pages of
Pictures and Stories, &c. 6d. each.
Daisy's Story Book.
Dot's Story Book.
A Nest of Stories.
Chats for Small Chatterers.
Birdie's Story Book.
A Sheaf of Tales.
Cassell's Sixpenny Story Books. All Illustrated, and containing
Interesting Stories by well-known writers.
The Smuggler's Cave.
Little Bi.d, Life and Adven-
The Delft Jug.
The Boat Club.
The Elchester College Boys.
My First Cruise.
The Little Peacemaker.
Cassell's Shilling Story Books. All Illustrated, and containing Interest-
Bunty and the Boys.
The Heir of Elmdale.
The Mystery at Shoncliff
Claimed at Last, aud Boy's
Thorns and Tangles.
The Cuckoo in the Robin's Nest.
The History of Five Little
Diamonds in the Sand.
The Giant's Cradle.
Shag and Doll.
Aunt Lueia's Locket.
The Magic Mirror.
The Cost of Revenge.
Among the Redskins.
The Ferryman of Brill.
A Banished Monarch.
Illustrated Books for the Little Ones. Containing interesting Stories.
All Illustrated, is. each.
Up and Down the Garden.
All Sorts of Adventures.
Our Sunday Stories.
Our Holiday Hours.
Indoors and Out.
Some Farm Friends.
Those Golden Sands.
Little Mothers & their Children.
Our Prettv Pets.
Our Schoolday Hours.
The World's Workers. A Series of New and Original Volumes.
With Portraits printed on a tint as Frontispiece, is. each.
The Earl of Shaftesbury.
Sarah Robinson, Agnes Wes-
ton, and Mrs. Meredith. By
E. M. Tomkinson.
Thomas A. Edison and Samuel
F. B. Morse. By Dr. Denslow
and J. Marsh Parker.
Mrs. Somerville and Mary Car-
penter. By Phyllis Browne.
General Gordon. By the Rev.
Charles' Dickens. By his Eldest
Sir Titus Salt and George
Moore. %J. Burnley.
Florence Nightingale, Cather-
ine Marsh. Frances Ridley
Havergal, Mrs. Ranyard
("L.N.R."). By Lizzie Alldridge.
Dr. Guthrie, Father Mathew,
Elihu Burritt, George Livesey.
By the Rev. J. W. Kirton.
David Livingstone. By Robert
Sir Henry Havelock and Colin
Campbell, Lord Clyde. Ey E. C.
Abraham Lincoln. By Ernest Foster.
George Miiller and Andrew Reed.
By E. R. Pitman.
Richard Cobden. By R. Cowinjj.
Benjamin Franklin. By E. M.
Handel. ' By Eliza Clarke.
Turner the Artist. By the Rev. S. A.
George and Robert Stephenson.
By C. L. Mateaux.
Library of Wonders. Illustrated Gift-books for Boys. Paper, is. ;
cloth, is. 6d.
Wonders of Acoustics.
Wonders of Animal Instinct
Wonders of Architecture.
Wonderful Balloon Ascents.
Wonders of Bodily Strength
Wonders of Watsr.
Selections from Cassell $ Company's Publications.
The " Proverbs " Series. Original Stories by Popular Authors, founded
on and illustrating well-known Proverbs. With Four Illustrations
in each Book, printed on a tint. is. 6d. each.
Fritters. By Sarah Pitt.
Trixy. liyMaggie Symi
The Two Hardcastles.
ne Bonavia Hunt.
Major Monk's Motto.
Kev. F. Langbridge.
Tim Thomson's Trial. By George
Ursula's Stumbling-Block. By Julia
Buth's Life-Work. By the Rev.
Books for Children. In Illuminated boards, fully Illustrated.
Happy Go Lucky. 2s.
Daisy Blue Eyes. 2s.
Twilight Fancies. 2s. 6d.
Cheerful Clatter. SB. 6d.
A Dozen and One. 5s.
Bible Talks. 5s.
Cassell's Eighteenpenny Story Books. Illustrated.
Wee Willie Winkie.
Ups and Downs of a Donkey's
Three Wee Ulster Lassies.
Up the Ladder.
Dick's Hero: and other Stories.
The Chip Boy.
Baggies, Baggies, and the
Hoses from Thorns.
Sunday School Reward Books
Original Illustrations in each.
Seeking a City.
Bhoda's Reward; or, "If
Wishes were Horses."
Jack Marston's Anchor.
Frank's Life-Battle; or, The
By Land and Sea.
The Young Berringtons.
Jeff and Leff.
Tom Morris's Error.
Worth more than Gold.
"Through Flood Through Fire;
and other Stories.
The Girl with the Golden Looks.
Stories of. the Olden Time.
By Popular Authors.
Cloth gilt, is. 6d. each.
Bags and Rainbows: A Story ot
Uncle William's Charges; or, The
Pretty Pink's Purpose; or, The
Little Street Merchants.
Cassell's Two-Shilling Story Books. Illustrated.
Stories of the Tower.
Mr. Burke's Nieces.
May Cunningham's Trial.
The Top of the Ladder : How to
Little 1'iotsam. [Beach it.
Madge and Her Friends.
The Children of the Court.
A Moonbeam Tangle.
I"eggy, and other Tales.
The Four Cats of the Tippertons.
Marion's Two Homes.
Little Folks' Sunday Book.
Two Fourpenny Bits.
Through Peril to Fortune.
Aunt Tabitha's Waits.
In Mischief Again.
The Magic Flower Pot.
The "Great River" Series (uniform with the "Log Cabin" Series).
By EDWARD S. ELLIS. Illustrated. Crown 8vo, cloth, bevelled
boards, as. 6d. each.
Down the Mississippi. | Lost in the Wilds.
Up the Tapajos ; or, Adventures in Brazil.
The " Boy Pioneer" Series. By EDWARD S. ELLIS. With Four Full-
page Illustrations in each Book. Crown 8vo, cloth, as. 6d. each.
Ned in the Woods. A Tale of I Ned on the Biver. A Tale of Indian
Early Days in the West | River Warfaie.
Ned in the Block House. A Story of Pio
The "World in Pictures.'
r Life in Kentucky.
Illustrated throughout. 2s. 6d. each.
A Bamble Bound France.
All the Bussiis.
Chats about Germany.
The Land of the Pyramids
The Eastern Wonderland (Japan).
Glimpses of South America.
The Land of Temples (India),
i The Isles of the Pacific.
Peeps into China.
Selections from Cassell tfc Company's Publications.
Half-Crown Story Books.
Wonders of Common Things.
Truth will Out.
At the South Pole.
Soldier and Patriot (George Wash-
Picture of School Life and Boy-
The Young Man in the Battle of
Life. By the Rev. Dr. l.andels.
The True Glory of Woman. By the
Rev. Dr. Landels.
Three and Sixpenny Library of Standard Tales, &c. All Illus-
trated and bound in cloth gilt. Crown 8vo. 33. 6d. each.
The Half Sisters.
Peggy Oglivie's Inheritance.
The Family Honour.
Working to Win.
Krilof and his Fables. By W. R. S.
Fairy Tales. By Prof. Morley.
Jane Austen and her Works.
Mission Life in Greece and
The Romance of Trade.
The Three Homes.
In Duty Bound.
The Home Chat Series. All Illustrated throughout.
Boards, 33. 6d. each. Cloth, gilt edges, 55. each.
Half-Hours with Early Ex- I Paws and Claws.
Decisive Events in History.
Around and About Old England.
Books for the Little Ones.
The Merry-go-Round. Poems for
Children. Illustrated. 5s.
Bhymes tor the Young Folk.
By William Allingham. Beauiitully
Illustrated. 3s. 6d.
The Little Doings of some
Little Folks. By Chatty Cheer-
ful Illustrated. 6s.
The Sunday Scrap Book. With
One Thousand Scripture Pictures.
Boards, 5s. ; cloth. 7s. 6d.
Daisy Dimple's Scrap Book.
Containing about i.ooo Pictures.
Boards, 5s.; cloth gilt, 7s. 6d.
The History Scrap Book. With
nearly 1,000 Engravings. 6s.;
cloth, 7s. 6d.
Little Folks' Picture Album.
With 168 Large Pictures. 5s.
Little Folks' Picture Gallery.
With 150 Illustrations. 5s.
Books for Boys.
The Black Arrow. A Tale of
the Two Roses. By R L.
Commodore Junk. By G. Man-
ville Fenn. 5s.
A Queer Race. By W. Westall.
Dead Man's Rock. A Romance.
By Q. 5s.
The Phantom City. By W. Wes-
Captain Trafalgar : A Story of the
Mexican Gulf? By Westall and
Laurie. Illustrated. 6s.
Kidnapped. By R. L. Stevenson.
The Old Fairy Tales. With Original
Illustrations. Boards, Is.; cloth,
My Diary. With 12 Coloured Plates
and 365 Woodcuts. Is.
Sandford and Merton: In Words ol
One Syllabi?. Illustrated. 2s. 6d.
The Story of Robin Hood. Wiili
Coloured Illustrations. 2s. 6d.
The Pilgrim's Progress. With
Coloured Illustrations. 2s. 6d.
Wee Little Rhymes. Is. 6d.
Little One's Welcome. Is. 6d.
Little Gossips. Is. 6d.
Ding Dong Bell. Is. 6d.
Good Times. Is. 6d.
Jolly Little Stories. Is. 6d.
Daisy Dell's Stories. Is. 6d.
Our Little Friends. Is. 6d.
Little Toddlers. Is. 6d.
King Solomon's Mines. By H. Rider
Haggard. Illustrated. 6s.
Treasure Island. By R. L. Ste-
venson. Illustrated. 6s.
Ships, Sailors, and the Sea. By
R. J. Cornewall-Jones. Illustrated. 5s.
Modern Explorers. By Thomas Frost.
Famous Sailors of Former Timos.
By Clements Markliam. Illustrated.
Wild Adventures in Wild Places.
hy Dr. Gordon Stables, R.N. Illus-
Jungle, Peak, and Plain. Dy Dr.
Gordon Stables, R.N. Illustrated. 5s.
Cassell & Company's Complete Catalogue will be sent post
free on application to
CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, Ludgate Hill, London.
University of California
SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY
405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1388
Return this material to the library
from which it was borrowed.
^ ^ ".
IS > "V
^^^ "5 IL^ 1
X SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY